In contrast, other-body judgments showed pre-supplementary motor and superior parietal activity. Expansion in the
dorsoventral direction was associated with the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior parietal lobule, whereas horizontal expansions were associated with activity in the bilateral somatosensory area. These results suggest neural dissociations between the two body axes: dorsoventral images of thickness may require visual processing, whereas bodily sensations are involved in horizontal body-size perception. Somatosensory rather than visual processes can be critical for the assessment of frontal own-body appearance. Visual body thickness Bortezomib solubility dmso and somatosensory body width may be integrated to construct a whole-body representation. “
“Activity-dependent gene expression depends, in part, on transcriptional regulation that is coordinated by rapid changes in the chromatin landscape as well as the covalent modification of DNA. Here we demonstrate that the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a gene that is critically involved in neural
plasticity and subject to epigenetic regulation, is regulated by the RNA/DNA editing enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Similar to previous reports, we observed an activity-dependent induction of BDNF exon IV mRNA expression, which correlated with a reduction in DNA methylation within the BDNF P4 promoter. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of AID disrupted these effects and inhibited BDNF exon IV mRNA expression, Selleck CB-839 an effect that was associated with decreased cAMP response element-binding protein occupancy within the BDNF P4 promoter. Thus, together with other nearly epigenetic mechanisms, AID plays a key role in regulating activity-dependent BDNF expression in post-mitotic cortical neurons. “
“Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive pathogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is a facultative anaerobic rod that causes listeriosis, a disease with potentially lethal consequences for susceptible individuals.
During infection, the pathogen is capable of sequestering metal ions to act as vital biocatalysts in cellular processes. The zinc uptake regulator (ZurR) is predicted to coordinate uptake of zinc from the external environment. An in-frame deletion of the zurR gene resulted in a mutant exhibiting a small colony phenotype and a smaller cell size. The zurR mutant was unaffected under conditions of zinc limitation but demonstrated increased sensitivity to toxic levels of zinc. The mutant also demonstrated a significant (1-log) reduction in virulence potential in the murine model of infection. Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified a number of potentially Zur-regulated genes in the genome of L. monocytogenes. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated significant de-repression of zurA,lmo0153, and lmo1671 in the zurR mutant background indicating that these putative transporters are ZurR regulated.