2012). Social deprivation stress leads to the development of anxiety in mice, and this appears to be modulated by reductions in BDNF (Berry et al. 2012). In a cross-sectional study of a healthy population, plasma BDNF levels were negatively associated with somatization, obsessive–compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, and anxiety (Bhang et al. 2012). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical BDNF may also be a modulatory factor in the development of PTSD (Rakofsky et al. 2012). Another NT that appears important in anxiety regulation is nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is increased under conditions of stress in
both animal models and humans (Aloe et al. 1986, 1994, 2002), and appears to be important in resilience to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders (for review see Alleva and Francia 2009). Interestingly, animal models demonstrate that increases in release of NGF are most marked under conditions of stressful behavioral interactions between Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical animals, with lesser increases seen under physical restraint stress (Aloe et al. 1986; Branchi et al. 2004; Alleva and Francia 2009). Further evidence suggests that levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the hippocampus are decreased in animals with higher anxiety and lower response to novelty (Perez et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2009) and that early life administration of FGF2 is able to prevent increased
anxiety in later life (Turner et al. 2011). Maternal exercise can lead to increased expression of NTs, including VEGF and BDNF, in the PFC of offspring Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that is associated with decreased anxiety (Aksu et al. 2012). Exercise also appears able to protect against the negative effect of maternal deprivation on expression of these NTs (Uysal et al. 2011). Cigarette smoking and nicotine in particular
appear to exert effects Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on expression of NTs, although the literature is sparse and heterogeneous. For example, cigarette smoking and repeated nicotine exposure has been associated with decreased expression of BDNF in animal models (Yeom et al. 2005; Tuon et al. 2010). In addition, plasma levels of BDNF are significantly lower in smokers than nonsmokers in human studies, with levels increasing with greater duration of smoking abstinence (Kim et al. 2007; Bhang et al. 2010). However, other results have suggested that nicotine exerts a positive effect on BDNF levels. For example, nicotine administration has been associated with increased levels of BDNF and FGF-2 in animal Adenosine triphosphate striatum (Maggio et al. 1997). The neurotrophic augmenting effects of nicotine in this situation is hypothesized to underpin a therapeutic learn more benefit of cholinergic stimulation on Parkinson’s disease by protecting dopaminergic neurons from damage. In a further study, traumatic brain injury revealed a positive effect of chronic cigarette smoking on BDNF expression (Lee et al. 2012). Nicotine exposure has also been associated with significant increases in NGF (French et al.