Indeed, most of the hypotheses focused on intra-neuronal events,

Indeed, most of the hypotheses focused on intra-neuronal events, such as dopamine oxidation, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Yet, recent reports suggested that glia may contribute to METH-induced neuropathology. In the present study, we investigated the hippocampal

dysfunction induced by an acute high dose of METH (30 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection), focusing on the inflammatory process and changes in several neuronal structural proteins. For that, 3-month-old male wild-type C57BL/6J mice were killed at different time-points post-METH. We observed that METH caused an inflammatory response characterized by astrocytic and microglia reactivity, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system alterations. Indeed, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD11b immunoreactivity were upregulated, likewise TNF-α and TNF receptor 1 protein levels. Furthermore, the effect of METH on hippocampal neurons was also investigated, and we observed a downregulation in beta III tubulin expression. To clarify the possible this website neuronal dysfunction induced by METH, several neuronal proteins were analysed. Syntaxin-1, calbindin D28k and tau protein levels were downregulated,

whereas synaptophysin was upregulated. We also evaluated whether an anti-inflammatory drug could prevent or diminish METH-induced neuroinflammation, and we concluded that indomethacin (10 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented METH-induced glia activation and both TNF system and beta III tubulin alterations. In conclusion, we demonstrated that

METH triggers an inflammatory process and leads to neuronal dysfunction in the hippocampus, which can be prevented by an anti-inflammatory treatment. “
“Neuroscience of the self has focused on high-level mechanisms related to language, memory or imagery of the self. Clomifene However, recent evidence suggests that low-level mechanisms such as multisensory and sensorimotor integration may play a fundamental role in self-related processing. Here we used virtual reality technology and visuo-tactile conflict to study such low-level mechanisms and manipulate where participants experienced their self to be localized (self-location). Frequency analysis and electrical neuroimaging of co-recorded high-resolution electroencephalography revealed body-specific alpha band power modulations in bilateral sensorimotor cortices. Furthermore, alpha power in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was correlated with the degree of experimentally manipulated self-location. We argue that these alpha oscillations in sensorimotor cortex and mPFC reflect self-location as manipulated through multisensory conflict. “
“Neurons in V1 display orientation selectivity by responding optimally to a preferred orientation edge when it is presented within their receptive fields. Orientation plasticity in striate cortex occurs either by ocular deprivation or by imposition of a non-preferred stimulus for several minutes.

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