albicans (Makovitzki & Shai, 2005), or phosphatidylcholine/ergost

albicans (Makovitzki & Shai, 2005), or phosphatidylcholine/ergosterol Fostamatinib concentration (10 : 1, w/w), mimicking human red blood cell plasma membranes, applying

the fungal membranes, were measured. The results showed that papiliocin significantly caused calcein leakage from the LUVs within 2 min and that papiliocin contained relatively lower activity compared with that of melittin, corresponding to the results of antifungal susceptibility testing (Fig. 3a and b). The LUV data also showed that papiliocin activity differs in the two kinds of liposomes that mimic different plasma membranes. Furthermore, the papiliocin-induced dye leakage from the liposomes confirms the membrane-active mechanism of the peptide, which was suggested by the PI influx assay. In summary, the results provided confirmation

regarding the membrane-active mechanism of papiliocin, which was assumed in the PI influx assay. In order to visualize the mechanism(s) of papiliocin, a single GUV, composed of phosphatidylcholine/rhodamine-conjugated Compound Library phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylinositol/ergosterol (5 : 4 : 1 : 2, w/w/w/w), mimicking the plasma membrane of C. albicans (Makovitzki & Shai, 2005), was used using the electroformation method (Angelova & Dimitrov, 1986; Angelova et al., 1992). Because of their average diameter ranges from 10 to 100 μm, GUVs enable direct optical microscopic observations. Additionally, the use of confocal microscopy or fluorescence spectroscopy allows the study of both the static structural and the dynamical properties of model membrane systems. Therefore, it is believed

that GUVs are one of the most significant model systems used in membrane studies (Wesołowska et al., 2009). As shown in Fig. 4, the rhodamine intensity of a single GUV gradually decreased after the treatment with not only mellitin but also papiliocin. The circular shape of the melittin-treated single GUV was maintained, whereas the papiliocin-treated GUV was time-dependently dispersed. Moreover, after 3 min, the vesicles had been split into multiple small vesicles and the intensity of rhodamine had diminished over time. Papiliocin appears to generate pores in the membranes, which then leads to Molecular motor a division of the liposome into several particles. In summary, the antifungal effects and the mechanism of action of papiliocin were analyzed. Several membrane studies indicate that papiliocin exerts its antifungal activity against human fungal pathogens, especially C. albicans, by a membrane-active mechanism. Although the exact mechanism must be further clarified, this study suggests that papiliocin has a potential for application as an antifungal agent and that this peptide can be used to design more potent antifungal peptides.

, 2010) Considering that the Drosophila P0 protein has DNase and

, 2010). Considering that the Drosophila P0 protein has DNase and endonuclease activities (Yacoub et al., 1996), it is reasonable to suspect that phosphorylated C. cucullus p33 may be involved in such macronuclear events. Furthermore, the P0 protein may play a role in regulating metabolism during pupal diapause of the flesh fly (Craig & Denlinger, 2000). The C. cucullus p33 may be involved in

the regulation of metabolic activity directly FDA approved Drug Library purchase or through gene expression, because mitochondrial membrane potential disappeared in the early stage of encystment (Funatani et al., 2010). It is also likely that C. cucullus p33 plays a role in the regulation of encystment-specific gene expression, as was reported in Drosophila. In fact, the expression of encystment-specific proteins in C. cucullus was recently found to be regulated at the Selleckchem MK1775 transcriptional level (in preparation). In many organisms, the ribosomal S5 protein consists of 190–230 amino acid residues (blast Search) and its free form is phosphoprotein (Matragkou et al., 2009). Taking into account that in mammalian cells, the ribosomal S5 protein has been reported to

be involved in the arrest of cell cycle and the initiation of differentiation (Matragkou et al., 2008),and the p24 must also be involved in the cell cycle arrest and differentiation into resting cyst form in C. cucullus. “
“A large number of novel bioactive compounds were discovered from microbial secondary metabolites based on the traditional bioactivity screenings. Recent fermentation studies indicated that the crude extract of marine Streptomyces sp. W007 possessed great potential in agricultural fungal disease control against Phomopsis asparagi, Polystigma deformans, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Monilinia fructicola, and Colletotrichum lagenarium. To further evaluate the biosynthetic potential of secondary metabolites, we sequenced the genome of Streptomyces sp. W007 and analyzed the identifiable secondary metabolite gene clusters. Moreover, one gene

cluster with type II PKS implied the possibility of Streptomyces sp. W007 to produce aromatic polyketide of angucyclinone antibiotics. Therefore, two novel compounds, 3-hydroxy-1-keto-3-methyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benz[α]anthracene and kiamycin with Casein kinase 1 potent cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines, were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. W007. In addition, other four known angucyclinone antibiotics were obtained. The gene cluster for these angucyclinone antibiotics could be assigned to 20 genes. This work provides powerful evidence for the interplay between genomic analysis and traditional natural product isolation research. Microbial natural products are an important source of new drugs (Solanki et al., 2008). Among the producers of commercially important metabolites, actinomycetes have proven to be a prolific source with a surprisingly small group of taxa accounting for the vast majority of compounds.

, 2010) Considering that the Drosophila P0 protein has DNase and

, 2010). Considering that the Drosophila P0 protein has DNase and endonuclease activities (Yacoub et al., 1996), it is reasonable to suspect that phosphorylated C. cucullus p33 may be involved in such macronuclear events. Furthermore, the P0 protein may play a role in regulating metabolism during pupal diapause of the flesh fly (Craig & Denlinger, 2000). The C. cucullus p33 may be involved in

the regulation of metabolic activity directly Vismodegib datasheet or through gene expression, because mitochondrial membrane potential disappeared in the early stage of encystment (Funatani et al., 2010). It is also likely that C. cucullus p33 plays a role in the regulation of encystment-specific gene expression, as was reported in Drosophila. In fact, the expression of encystment-specific proteins in C. cucullus was recently found to be regulated at the selleck chemicals transcriptional level (in preparation). In many organisms, the ribosomal S5 protein consists of 190–230 amino acid residues (blast Search) and its free form is phosphoprotein (Matragkou et al., 2009). Taking into account that in mammalian cells, the ribosomal S5 protein has been reported to

be involved in the arrest of cell cycle and the initiation of differentiation (Matragkou et al., 2008),and the p24 must also be involved in the cell cycle arrest and differentiation into resting cyst form in C. cucullus. “
“A large number of novel bioactive compounds were discovered from microbial secondary metabolites based on the traditional bioactivity screenings. Recent fermentation studies indicated that the crude extract of marine Streptomyces sp. W007 possessed great potential in agricultural fungal disease control against Phomopsis asparagi, Polystigma deformans, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Monilinia fructicola, and Colletotrichum lagenarium. To further evaluate the biosynthetic potential of secondary metabolites, we sequenced the genome of Streptomyces sp. W007 and analyzed the identifiable secondary metabolite gene clusters. Moreover, one gene

cluster with type II PKS implied the possibility of Streptomyces sp. W007 to produce aromatic polyketide of angucyclinone antibiotics. Therefore, two novel compounds, 3-hydroxy-1-keto-3-methyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benz[α]anthracene and kiamycin with LY294002 potent cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines, were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. W007. In addition, other four known angucyclinone antibiotics were obtained. The gene cluster for these angucyclinone antibiotics could be assigned to 20 genes. This work provides powerful evidence for the interplay between genomic analysis and traditional natural product isolation research. Microbial natural products are an important source of new drugs (Solanki et al., 2008). Among the producers of commercially important metabolites, actinomycetes have proven to be a prolific source with a surprisingly small group of taxa accounting for the vast majority of compounds.

17 Clusters and small-scale outbreaks pose a worldwide problem, b

17 Clusters and small-scale outbreaks pose a worldwide problem, but explosive outbreaks comprising hundreds of thousands of cases are unique to sub-Saharan Africa.18 The “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa is a region at uniquely high risk for meningococcal disease. The epidemiology is characterized by an elevated baseline incidence of 10 to 20 cases per 100,000 population, annual epidemics coinciding with the dry season, and intermittent explosive epidemics in which attack rates can reach 1,000 per 100,000.19 The last major serogroup A epidemic occurred in 1996 to 1997 and resulted in hundreds of thousands

of cases and over 25,000 deaths.1 The belt was first proposed by Lapeyssonnie, described Sunitinib datasheet as an area between latitudes 4° and 16° north with a high incidence and recurring epidemics. He recognized that disease occurred in areas receiving 300 to 1,100 mm mean annual rainfall, coinciding with much of semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa and including the Sahel.20 Extending from Ethiopia to Senegal, the meningitis belt is now considered to include 12 epidemic prone countries.21 Many other countries in Africa experience outbreaks,

although less frequently and with lower interepidemic incidence. Serogroup A is the predominant cause of outbreaks in the African meningitis belt. However, outbreaks of serogroups C, X, and W-135 have been recorded.22–25 Meningococcal outbreaks are effectively clonal, and are characterized by successive shifts in the predominant sequence type. Since

the 1990s, ST-5 BI 6727 order complex strains have predominated, with the Progesterone notable emergence of ST-11 W-135 in 2002 following the outbreak associated with the Hajj pilgrimage in 2000.1,26,27 The epidemiology of meningococcal disease in South Africa has features both of industrialized and developing countries. Serogroups A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y are each reported with appreciable frequency. In Western Cape Province (Cape Town), serogroup B predominates.28,29 From 2000 to 2005 ST-11 serogroup W-135 emerged rapidly, replacing serogroup A as the most common cause of endemic disease in Gauteng (Johannesburg) and increasing the overall incidence in this province fivefold, to 4.0 cases per 100,000 population.29 As in much of the world, in the pre-World War II era the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the Americas was characterized by intermittent serogroup A outbreaks with attack rates in the tens of cases per 100,000. Since World War II, serogroup A is effectively absent in the Americas, as it is across the industrialized world. Outbreaks and clusters of meningococcal disease persist, most commonly serogroup C.17 Serogroup B outbreaks are notable for lower attack rates but prolonged duration.30–32 The 1990s was witness to the emergence of serogroup Y disease in much of North America, in particular the United States but to a lesser degree Canada.13,33 Recent vaccination programs have begun to change the epidemiology of serogroup C.

05) Neurons

05). Neurons buy BI 6727 with a significant main effect were defined as differential neurons. For each facial model, one-way anova was also performed. Responses to three frontal faces with three gaze directions, and those to right and left profile faces with two gaze directions were compared by Tukey post hoc tests (P < 0.05). Neurons with significantly different responses toward gaze directions were defined as gaze-differential neurons (Tukey post hoc tests, P < 0.05). Neurons with significantly different responses toward face orientations were defined as face orientation-differential neurons (Tukey post hoc

tests, P < 0.05). For other stimulus categories (cartoon faces, eye-like patterns, face-like patterns and simple geometric patterns), one-way anovas were also performed within the same stimulus category. Neurons with a significant main effect were defined as cartoon face-differential, eye-like pattern-differential, face-like pattern-differential and simple geometric pattern-differential neurons, respectively. Stimulus information conveyed by visually responsive neurons (bits/s) was computed as described in previous studies (Skaggs et al., 1993; Panzeri et al., 1996). These parameters were calculated as follows, We also analysed response latency to CP-673451 research buy each visual stimulus. For each neuron, one peri-event histogram was

constructed using the entire set of data for all trials and all stimuli. Neuronal response latency was defined as the interval from the onset of stimulus presentation to the time at which the neuronal firing rate exceeded the mean ± 2 SD of the baseline firing rate. Furthermore, for each neuron, individual peri-event histograms were constructed using data for each of the different stimulus categories. We compared the latencies to various stimulus categories to determine whether the characteristics of the specific visual stimuli could modulate the latencies of the pulvinar neurons. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM.

Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a method used to simplify the analysis of relationships that exist within a complex array of data. Amisulpride MDS constructs a geometric representation of data to show the degree of relationship between stimuli represented by the data matrix (Young, 1987). MDS has been used to examine taste relationships in the gustatory system (Nishijo & Norgren, 1990, 1991), face categorization in the inferotemporal cortex (Young & Yamane, 1992) and spatial discrimination in the septal nuclei (Nishijo et al., 1997) by using data matrices representing neural activity in response to the particular stimulus array (i.e. taste solutions, photos of faces and photos of locations, respectively). In the present study, the 49 visual stimuli were used to elicit neural activity in pulvinar neurons.

Each sample was tested in triplicate and results were expressed i

Each sample was tested in triplicate and results were expressed in μM. Biofilms were observed by CSLM as described below (Otto, 2008). Before imaging, the biofilm was formed in microtiter plates (24-well, Greiner Bio-One, Germany), and rinsed with

sterile 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2; no autofluorescence detected) for 10 min before being stained with 15 μM propidium iodide (Sigma) for 5 min at room temperature to detect bacterial cells in red. After being washed in PBS, the samples were incubated with 50 mg mL−1 of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Con A (FITC–Con A) (Sigma) for 5 min at room temperature to stain the glycocalyx matrix green. The propidium iodide was excited at 520 nm, the emission was monitored SAHA HDAC order at 620 nm, and FITC–Con A at 495 and 525 nm, respectively. Intact biofilms were examined nondestructively using a Fluoview FV1000 Espectral Olympus CSLM

(Olympus Latin America, Miami, FL) equipped with UPlanSApo × 100/1.40 oil UIS2 Olympus oil immersion lens. Optical sections of 0.87 μm were collected over the complete thickness of biofilms. Then, for each sample, images from three randomly selected positions were obtained and analyzed using an Olympus Fluoview FV 1000 (Zernotti et al., 2010). For image analysis, three investigators H 89 cost (J.A.M., I.A. and M.G.P.) evaluated the images independently in a blinded retrospective manner. All experiments were performed in triplicate and numerical data are presented as means with error bars representing SDs. The data were statistically analyzed using a one-way anova followed by the Student–Newman–Keuls test for multiple comparisons. Differences between means were assessed with a P-value <0.05 being considered statistically significant. A quantitative analysis showed that the S. aureus cells attached to 96-well plates exhibited good biofilm

formation (according to the scale described in Materials and methods) after 18 h and remained up to 24 h. However after 48 h, their attachment was significantly reduced (P<0.005) when tested under the same experimental selleck screening library conditions. The ATCC was stable until 48 h (BBU=2.50), with this strain showing the best biofilm formation between 18 and 24 h. After 48 h, the biofilm of S. aureus was detached from the abiotic surface. No additional biofilm production was detected after 72 h compared with incubation at 48 h. Therefore, 18–24 h was chosen for the other assays (Fig. 1a). The production of detectable amounts of ROS and RNI (NO) by S. aureus in the biofilm was evaluated by NBT and Griess, respectively. These assays were useful in determining the relation between the intracellular and extracellular metabolite strains, determined by iROS/BBU (Fig. 1b), eROS/BBU (Fig. 1c) and NO/BBU (Fig. 1d), where the BBU were obtained from each strain of S. aureus.

Each sample was tested in triplicate and results were expressed i

Each sample was tested in triplicate and results were expressed in μM. Biofilms were observed by CSLM as described below (Otto, 2008). Before imaging, the biofilm was formed in microtiter plates (24-well, Greiner Bio-One, Germany), and rinsed with

sterile 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2; no autofluorescence detected) for 10 min before being stained with 15 μM propidium iodide (Sigma) for 5 min at room temperature to detect bacterial cells in red. After being washed in PBS, the samples were incubated with 50 mg mL−1 of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Con A (FITC–Con A) (Sigma) for 5 min at room temperature to stain the glycocalyx matrix green. The propidium iodide was excited at 520 nm, the emission was monitored RXDX-106 price at 620 nm, and FITC–Con A at 495 and 525 nm, respectively. Intact biofilms were examined nondestructively using a Fluoview FV1000 Espectral Olympus CSLM

(Olympus Latin America, Miami, FL) equipped with UPlanSApo × 100/1.40 oil UIS2 Olympus oil immersion lens. Optical sections of 0.87 μm were collected over the complete thickness of biofilms. Then, for each sample, images from three randomly selected positions were obtained and analyzed using an Olympus Fluoview FV 1000 (Zernotti et al., 2010). For image analysis, three investigators BAY 80-6946 purchase (J.A.M., I.A. and M.G.P.) evaluated the images independently in a blinded retrospective manner. All experiments were performed in triplicate and numerical data are presented as means with error bars representing SDs. The data were statistically analyzed using a one-way anova followed by the Student–Newman–Keuls test for multiple comparisons. Differences between means were assessed with a P-value <0.05 being considered statistically significant. A quantitative analysis showed that the S. aureus cells attached to 96-well plates exhibited good biofilm

formation (according to the scale described in Materials and methods) after 18 h and remained up to 24 h. However after 48 h, their attachment was significantly reduced (P<0.005) when tested under the same experimental IKBKE conditions. The ATCC was stable until 48 h (BBU=2.50), with this strain showing the best biofilm formation between 18 and 24 h. After 48 h, the biofilm of S. aureus was detached from the abiotic surface. No additional biofilm production was detected after 72 h compared with incubation at 48 h. Therefore, 18–24 h was chosen for the other assays (Fig. 1a). The production of detectable amounts of ROS and RNI (NO) by S. aureus in the biofilm was evaluated by NBT and Griess, respectively. These assays were useful in determining the relation between the intracellular and extracellular metabolite strains, determined by iROS/BBU (Fig. 1b), eROS/BBU (Fig. 1c) and NO/BBU (Fig. 1d), where the BBU were obtained from each strain of S. aureus.

First, not every participant suffering

First, not every participant suffering Selleckchem Cyclopamine from TD provided a stool sample, hence we evaluated the proportions for each diarrheagenic E coli pathotype among collected stool samples rather than sick individuals to avoid assuming the proportions were the same. Second, during this cohort study we used direct stool PCR to differentiate

between E coli pathotypes rather than use different laboratory techniques for each different pathotype; we did so in order to avoid having data obtained from different techniques with different sensibilities and specificities among them. Third, more participants were enrolled during the summer months. This epidemiological finding could impact the recommended use of ETEC LT vaccines17 during warmer and cooler months. However, additional studies using ETEC LT vaccines would

need to be conducted in order to further evaluate the possible benefits during lower acquisition rate seasons. The difference between ETEC and EAEC rates in terms of seasonality suggests that the two important causes of TD have different pathways of transmission and reservoirs in Mexico. We are indebted to J. Guillen and the administration and staff of Universidad Internacional in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico for their help in this project. This work was supported by the following sources: NIH R01 AI54948-01 and UL1 RR024148 to the Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston, and NIH DK56338, which funds the Texas Gulf Coast Digestive Diseases Center. The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest AG 14699 to declare. “
“Background. Jeju Island is the most visited spot in South Korea; however, Protein kinase N1 it had the highest death rate in the country due to injury in 2008. We investigated injured patients who presented to an emergency department (ED) in Jeju and compared patients who were visitors with those who were residents of Jeju. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted

on injured patients visiting the ED at the Jeju National University Hospital from March 2008 to February 2010. The following factors were investigated: demographic data, new injury severity score (NISS), alcohol use, intention of injury, mechanism of injury, place of occurrence, activity when injured, patient outcome, and final mortality. Results. A total of 9,226 injured patients visited the ED during the study: 8,392 residents and 834 visitors (9.04%). The sex ratio and NISS were not different between the two groups. The mean age was younger in visitors (33.96 ± 23.37 vs 30.83 ± 18.79, p < 0.001). More intentional injuries and alcohol-related injuries occurred in residents than visitors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.005, respectively). In both groups, the most common reasons for injury were falling, stumbling, jumping, and being pushed. Visitors had more transportation-related injuries and were injured more often during leisure or play or when traveling.

coli found Cook et al (2001) studied the presence of several vi

coli found. Cook et al. (2001) studied the presence of several virulence factors among 50 strains of E. coli causing vaginitis in nonpregnant women, with findings similar to ours. However, both studies differed considerably compared with the

results of Birõsováet al. (2004), who found higher percentages of the virulence factors studied (hly, cnf, pap, sfa, iucD genes) Hormones antagonist among E. coli isolates from vaginal samples of nonpregnant and pregnant women than in our study. Obata-Yasuoka et al. (2002) compared E. coli isolates from pregnant women with isolates from nonpregnant women, with different results. The hly, cnf and pap genes, all associated with PAIs, were significantly more frequent among strains from pregnant women presenting a higher percentage of nalidixic acid-susceptible

strains. In spite of the lack of significant differences in the levels of nalidixic acid resistance between E. coli strains from pregnant and nonpregnant women, statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of several virulence factors among nalidixic acid-resistant and -susceptible strains. The lower frequency of the hly, cnf1 and pap genes among the nalidixic acid-resistant isolates could be explained by the partial loss of PAI associated with acquisition of quinolone RO4929097 chemical structure resistance, as has been demonstrated in a previous study carried out in our laboratory (Soto et al., 2006), in which a quinolone-susceptible E. coli strain was grown in culture media with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, observing the loss of the hly and cnf1 genes. In urinary tract infections, P-fimbriae mediate the specific attachment GPX6 of uropathogenic E. coli to kidney tissue and elicit a cytokine response in these cells

(Johnson, 1991; Johnson, 2005). Nevertheless, the role of P-fimbriae in genital tract infection remains unknown. Notably, 60% of isolates from pregnant women belonged to phylogenetic group B2, considered the most virulent, and a high percentage of nonpregnant isolates were phylogenetic group A, considered as commensal, thereby confirming the greater virulence of E. coli isolates from pregnant women. In summary, E. coli strains isolated from vaginal and/or endocervical samples of pregnant women are more virulent than those from nonpregnant women. The presence of hemolysin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor and P-fimbriae, all in a PAI, may allow the bacteria to cause severe infections during pregnancy, thereby increasing the possibility of neonatal sepsis. Further studies are needed in order to analyze the role of each virulence factor in the transmission of microorganisms between mother and baby. Thanks are due to Quique Bassat (CRESIB) for the revision and suggestions.

Fig S1 Construction of M1-2 strain Table S1 Nematodes studied

Fig. S1. Construction of M1-2 strain. Table S1. Nematodes studied. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly

or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples; however, differences R788 molecular weight were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six

different primer pairs targeting 16S rRNA genes of significant bacterial groups, and the community composition was evaluated by comparing specific ratios of the calculated abundances. In seven of nine cases, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene ratio was significantly higher in fecal samples that had been frozen compared to identical samples that had not. This effect was further supported by qPCR analysis of bacterial groups within these two phyla. The results demonstrate that storage conditions of fecal samples may adversely affect the determined Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is a frequently used biomarker in gut microbiology. Investigating the composition of the human Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso microbiota and correlating findings to specific clinical or physiological states such as irritable bowel diseases and obesity has demonstrated the collective importance of the bacterial community present in the gut as a regulatory factor in health and disease (Young et al., 2011). Because of the large diversity and complexity of interactions between the resident bacteria,

various simplifications have been sought. An example of this is the use of the ratio between the two most aminophylline predominant phyla, namely the Firmicutes and the Bacteriodetes, as a biomarker in relation to human physiology (Armougom & Raoult, 2008; Guo et al., 2008; Mariat et al., 2009). Efficient and nonbiased extraction of total genomic bacterial DNA from the complex fecal samples is a crucial first step for many molecular-based studies of the bacterial community within the gut environment. Downstream applications, such as quantitative PCR and metagenomic sequencing, ultimately require unbiased DNA input to produce accurate and creditable research results. Previous studies have assessed the effectiveness of various DNA extraction procedures based on, for example, DNA yield, extent of DNA shearing, and use as template for subsequent PCR and have often been related to detection of specific pathogens (McOrist et al., 2002; Tang et al., 2008; Ariefdjohan et al.