Several countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are already involved, and ultimately the goal is to roll out the project in as many countries as possible. The communities of people living with HIV (PLHIV) lead the implementation of the index. HIV in Europe will support the implementation of the index in at least three countries.
CT99021 The project on the criminalization of HIV infection is a legal review of how criminalization deters testing and can lead to HIV transmission. The pilot study, to be published in mid-2010, will present an analysis and evaluation of the HIV transmission and exposure laws in five countries reflecting different legal approaches [Hungary, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK (England and Wales)]. The preliminary findings presented in Stockholm showed substantial variation in the degree of criminalization and use of public health powers;
Selleck 3MA that prosecution guidance was uncommon; that shared responsibility for HIV transmission is not articulated in the law, and is variable in HIV prevention literature; and that anti-discrimination legislation is not always effective in achieving its goals. The pilot study will inform the development of a larger scale study of legislation in most European countries. The evidence concerning why people test or not remains incomplete – but we do know much, and are not always acting on it. The evidence shows that there are often many opportunities missed by the health care system prior to HIV diagnosis . Missed opportunities can arise where testing is not offered and where clinicians have barriers to offering a test. We know that barriers to HIV testing exist at multiple levels and that the decision to test reflects a personal assessment of whether knowing oneself (and being known) to be HIV-positive is advantageous, especially in settings with poor treatment access or high levels of stigmatization
or where there is criminalization of drug use, sex between men or sex work. There is also evidence of what can be done to facilitate access to and uptake of HIV testing and counselling and to maximize benefits: improve the quality of such services; A central goal of the HIV in Europe Initiative Baricitinib is to promote testing and treatment throughout Europe and Central Asia in order to reduce the number of HIV-infected patients presenting late for care. HIV in Europe complements the EU Second Health Programme  by focusing on developing strategies to reach people presenting late for care as a group at particular risk of contracting or transmitting a disease, as well as the European Commission’s aim to reduce health inequalities. The project adds European value not only through its collaboration between many European countries, but also through the broad group of stakeholders (clinicians, policy-makers and civil society organizations) that take part in the initiative and its projects. Building on the past achievements of the HIV in Europe Initiative (i.e.