Reducing the number of control packets while maintaining reliabil

Reducing the number of control packets while maintaining reliability is an important technical issue.In this paper, we propose a new transmission power control scheme to efficiently compensate for the changes of link quality according to the temperature. To reduce the packet overhead for power control, the temperature measured by sensors is utilized to adjust the transmission power level. By more accurately adjusting the transmission power, the closed-loop feedback process is additionally executed by using control packets.3.?Empirical ExperimentsTo analyze the change of link quality according to the temperature variation, we measured the RSSI in an indoor environment in which the temperature varied from 29 to 35 ��C.

Figure 1(a) shows the layout of the experimental environment.

Our experiment is performed in an empty office to minimize effects on link quality variation from sources other than the temperature. We use TELOSB motes with CC2420 radio chips [13]. The TELOSB mote has a 12-bit resolution SHT11 temperature sensor and an integrated PCB antenna. In the experiment, the transmission power is set to 0 dBm that is the maximum value of CC2420. The packet rate is one packet per 5 seconds. Figure 1(b) shows the distribution of the daytime peak temperature in Figure 1(a).Figure 1.The layout and temperature distribution. (a) Layout; (b) Temperature distribution.Temperature at Node 4 that is installed in the data sever is the highest.

We measure the RSSI between Node 4 and Node B in the situation where the temperature changes over 24 hours.

Figure 2 shows the RSSI corresponding to temperature variation at Node 4 (from 3 P.M. 20th October to 3 P.M. 21st October). The temperature variation is 6 ��C over 24 hours. Cilengitide The RSSI becomes lowest when temperature is highest around 3 P.M. On the contrary, when a temperature is low, RSSI is high with less fluctuation. We can easily observe the inversely proportional relationship between RSSI and temperature. In a high temperature, the link quality is reduced and irregular.Figure 2.The change of RSSI according to temperature.

As shown in Figure GSK-3 3, we measured the RSSI between a sink n
Many semiconductor materials have been tested for their suitability as ion sensors; in particular there is an emerging interest in the use of wide band gap semiconductors as sensitive chemical sensors. Gallium nitrides (GaN) are chemically stable semiconductors with high internal spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization, which make them very suitable materials to create very sensitive but robust sensors for the detection of ions, gases and polar liquids, particularly at high temperatures and in harsh environments [1,2].

database described above contained 17,626 sequences, many of them

database described above contained 17,626 sequences, many of them related to the immune response. However, further exploration of this database revealed that sequences related to reproduction, the other major issue for turbot farming, were underrepresented. In order to ob tain more sequences of genes related to sex phenotype and reproduction control, and for isolation of EST associated genetic markers, a 454 pyrosequencing run was performed from the brain hypophysis gonadal axis by using tissues of 30 turbot individuals at different stages of sexual development. Table 2 summarizes the statistics of the turbot pyrosequencing normalized library. Raw data generated 2,762,845 sequences. These sequences were fil tered using Roches software with default settings.

After filtration, 1,191,866 sequence reads were obtained with an average length of 286 bp. Se quences were assembled into 65,472 contigs with a mean length of 625. 9 bp. About half of these contigs were longer than 500 bp and their distribution by range was the highest for the 200 499 bp length, Entinostat followed by the 1 199 bp length and finally by the 500 999 bp length. The average depth coverage per contig was of 4. 6 sequences. Reads obtained in this high throughput sequence analysis have been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under accession number SRA056483. Table 3 shows the top 20 longest contigs obtained from the 454 run with their annotation. They ranged from 3,550 bp to 5,012 bp and their average coverage depth per nucleotide ranged between 4. 3 and 33. 2. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 was the longest contig.

Table 4 shows the top 20 contigs with the deepest coverage. Although a normalized library was used, most contigs with the deepest coverage corresponded to pro tein ribosomal genes. However, genes involved in the reproductive system such as the histone deacetylase complex or the epididymal secretory protein, which is highly expressed on the surface of ejaculated spermato zoa, were also present. About half of the contigs obtained in the 454 run were successfully annotated and classified into Gene Ontology categories. More precisely, contigs exclusively obtained by the 454 run were functionally classified in the BP, CC and MF categories. Creation of the turbot 3 database The sequencing strategies used, i. e.

traditional Sanger and high throughput 454, yielded a high amount of transcriptomic sequences both from immune and repro ductive systems in turbot. With all the information generated, a new Turbot 3 database was created and stored in a web based portal for exploitation, first by the consortium participating in this project and then publically once the project is finished by the end of 2013. Cap3 soft ware was used to assemble the sequences coming from all Sanger based libraries and the contigs from 454 pyrosequencing, yielding 52,427 unique sequences, thus reducing redundancy among sequences. The number of sequences generated in one single pyrosequencing run was almost four

�� = 1 expresses the most ideal condition, which is the biggest c

�� = 1 expresses the most ideal condition, which is the biggest contrast.�� = 0 expresses the worst condition, which means no luminance difference between two adjoining points.The spatial frequency, cross axle, means number of the cycles in each millimeter (mm), where each black-and-white pair is called a cycle in Figure 3. A line on the top of this graph, which is a black line with small circles through it, represents the ideal curve.Figure 3.Spatial frequency of a reflecting type Cassegrain telescope.For a good telescope design the MTF curve comes close to this line. The purple line with the crosses through it shows the on-axis values. The goal is to get this line as high and close to the ideal curve as possible. The violet and the green lines with the triangles and squares through them show the off-axis values.

Ideally, these lines should be as good as the on-axis line, and they should be balanced with each other so they are close together [20].The modulation value which over 0.8 respects to 20 cycles/mm means discrimination or contrast of this design is high and excellent [21]. Hence, we often use MTF to analyze the ability as the resolving power or the sharpness of the telescope. This also makes sure that our designed telescope can obtain clear Sun image outlines.During design process, we tried to use a plane mirror to replace the right prism and also relocated the right angle prism to a location between the convex mirror and the concave one. For the first case, all
Radar systems are key components in military and civilian schemes.

Different applications have emerged since World War II related to this kind of sensor. A Radio Aid to Detection And Ranging (radar [1]) is an electromagnetic sensor used for the detection and location of energy scattering objects. These systems not only have the ability to detect targets and show their position, but also to generate images and carry out certain electronic attack tasks, among many other applications. The basic principle of radar sensors is based on the time needed by the emitted electromagnetic wave to reach a target and back.This principle is depicted in Figure 1, and can be divided into the following phases [1,2]:The radar emits an electromagnetic energy which travels through space.If the transmitted energy hits a target, it will be scattered in all directions.

Part of the scattered energy travels back to the radar and it will be sensed by the receiving antenna.In the receiver, energy is amplified and with the aid of signal processing techniques the presence of a target may be determined. Not only the existence of Cilengitide targets can a radar detect but also other parameters such as its range, its radial velocity, or even the shape and size of the target if the radar has enough resolution to resolve closely spaced points within a target.Figure 1.

The results show that the conductor quality factor is independent

The results show that the conductor quality factor is independent of the substrate permittivity and varies linearly with the substrate thickness. From Equation (4), t
Two-dimensional flow measurement is becoming more and more important in many applications such as meteorology, drag reduction research for aircraft and vessels [1�C4], biomedical flow detection [5] and control enhancement for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)/Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) [6�C9]. Conventional techniques are mostly based on Pitot tubes (including hemispherical nose probes) [10�C13] or electromechanical self-orienting vanes [12�C14], which usually protrude outside the testing body and disturb the flow they measure, need hard mechanical ties and/or intrusive pneumatic links inside.

Their fabrication and packaging processes are generally elaborate and do not meet practical requirements. When applied to small objects, more problems occur, such as big size and heavy weight, high power consumption, difficulty to install, tendency to break and so on. In recent years, many researchers have applied micromachining processes to realize microsensors and arrays for measuring flow vectors [15�C24], however, most sensors are still complex, fragile and power consuming.Ozaki’s work [14] showed the measurement of the flow-induced force in 1-Degree Of Freedom (DOF) and 2-DOF sensory hairs. The measuring probe of the 2-DOF sensor was made up of a long wire attached to the center of a cross-shaped beam with strain gauges on the four roots. It could measure the direction angle of air flow with one sensor hair.

However, the sensor was hard to fabricate and the structure was fragile and easily broken.Chen’s work [24] contains two types. One is based on an orthodox micromachined Hot Wire Anemometer (HWA). Using a plastic deformation magnetic assembly method, an out-of-plane HWA with two support Anacetrapib beams was made. They then combined three orthogonal hot wires together to form a three-dimensional sensor. The other method is based on momentum transfer principles and inspired by fish lateral line sensors, adopting a similar principle as Ozaki’s work. The fabrication for realizing these sensors is relatively complex.The works of Dong et al. [25], Kim et al. [17], Van Oudheusden et al. [23], Furjes et al. [21], de Bree et al. [22] and Van Oudheusden [19] all used thermal sensing methods to detect two-dimensional flow.

They used several heaters and temperature detectors distributed around the center of the chip to detect flow-induced temperature differences. The sensor usually consisted of multiple isolated heaters and thermometers with separate electrical connection pads and thus made the structures relatively complicated and large.This paper presents a novel flow sensor with a relatively simple structure.

However, shape changes in terms of tensile strain will lead to a

However, shape changes in terms of tensile strain will lead to a change in conductivity of the electrodes in addition to the change in electrode separation, making the material combination complicated to characterize as a simple strain sensor. For example, if a parallel capacitive sensor is designed using a flexible electrode, the electrode area increases as the sensor is compressed. Then the sensor signal changes due to the decrease in gap distance between the electrodes, as well as due to the change in resistance of the electrode geometry changing [14,16]. With dielectric elastomers one primary research goal is the development of compliant electrodes, where a change in mechanical dimension does not lead to a large change in resistivity of the material [17].

This will be very useful for flexible circuit applications, but is not useful at this time for tailoring a high-stretch strain sensor, where a change in resistivity of the material with respect to applied mechanical deformation is required [9,18�C20].1.3. Piezoresistive Polymer SensorsDifferent types of piezoresistive sensors have been developed over the past decade with a focus on strain or force-sensing applications. Historically flexible fiber sensors have followed different directions including the development of yarns with conductive fibers [5,21] or nanotube yarns [22], electroactive polymers with carbon fillers [9,19], carbon or silver-coated polymer fibers [10] and the integration of carbon nanotubes into a polymer matrix [23]. The yarn design includes a sensor fiber element woven or twisted together with structural but electrically insulating fibers.

The conductive fiber could be metallic or carbon-coated [5,24]. This combination allows the integration of sensing properties into a structural Brefeldin_A package, where the sensor material can support mechanical loads and provide a signal (while traditional strain gauges only provide passive sensing of substrate deformation). The basic design of a piezoresistive sensor monofilament entails combining conductive particles together with a flexible polymer matrix, creating a CPC material. The material can then be formed into various forms from monofilaments to plates for specific applications. Forms of carbon are natural choices for the conductive filler. The basic system includes combining carbon black and a non-conductive mechanically flexible matrix to produce a composite. As the content of carbon black increases, the mechanical flexibility of the monofilament decreases, while the electrical conductivity increases. This can result in a monofilament which conducts current well, but will fail mechanically if stressed too much. Conversely,
Physical activity (PA) is an important determinant of health and well-being.

This last database has been constituted within this study and wi

This last database has been constituted within this study and will help validating the altimeter-based pressure signal during ETDs (section 4.2).The SLA derived from altimetry has the following formulation:SLA=Orbit?Range?��Corrections?MSS_CLS(1a)where �� Corrections = Sea State Bias + Radiometer wet tropospheric correction + Ionospheric correction + GOT2000 ocean tide + Solid earth tide + Polar tide [17,18]. The IB and dry tropospheric corrections are not applied because they are correlated to SLP:IB=?0.9948*(SLP?SLP��) in cm(1b)DryTropo=?2.227*SLP*(1+0.0026*cos(2��)) in mm [18](1c)where SLP is the atmospheric pressure (in hPa), SLP�� is the instantaneous mean of SLP over global ocean, and is the latitude. The scale factor 0.9948 is based on the empirical value [19] of the IB at mid latitudes.

Several studies have shown the zonal dependence of this coefficient, from about 0.9 cm/hPa at high latitudes to ?0.5 cm/hPa at the Equator [9], with a strong space variability due to wind effects and also to some dynamic response to pressure forcing. For the present study, the SLA fields have been computed by subtracting a Mean Sea Surface field MSS_CLS, [20]), to reduce the cross-track geoid��s errors [7,9,21].Altimeter data are usually selected using thresholds on the most relevant parameters characterizing the altimeter and radiometer measurement quality. This editing procedure thus allows the selection of useful altimeter datasets for most applications and ocean studies (altimeter Validated Database or VD).

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of massive, small and low-cost sensor nodes deployed in a monitoring region, forming a multi-hop self-organized network system through wireless communication. The target is to cooperatively sense, collect and process the information about objects in the coverage area, and then send it to the observer for processing and analyzing. It is a system with multi-functional and low energy consumption (see [1-4]).Failed nodes may decrease the quality of service (Qos) of the entire WSN. It is important and necessary to study the fault detection methods Batimastat for nodes in WSNs for the following reasons [5-6]:Massive low-cost sensor nodes are often deployed in uncontrollable and hostile environments. Therefore, failure in sensor nodes can occur more easily than in other systems;The applications of WSNs are being widened.

WSNs are also deployed in some occasions such as monitoring of nuclear reactor where high security is required. Fault detection for sensor nodes in this specified application is of great importance;It is troublesome and not practical to manually examine whether the nodes are functioning normally;Correct information cannot be obtained by the control center because failed nodes would produce erroneous data.

In the following paragraphs, we describe some basics of microwav

In the following paragraphs, we describe some basics of microwave radiometry, the requirements of the SMOS mission, and the corresponding research activities. The design and the main characteristics of the ELBARA II instruments are described in Sections 2 and 3. The Appendix contains a list of the abbreviations used and the specifications of the electronic components used in the radiometer design.1.1. Measurement PrincipleMicrowave radiometry is a passive remote-sensing technique that measures thermal radiation. The radiance TBp emitted from a terrestrial surface at horizontal (p = H) or vertical (p = V) polarization depends on the surface temperature TS, and on the surface reflectivity Rp. The latter can be used as a proxy for the remote retrieval of soil moisture or sea salinity.

In the microwave range, the Planck function of thermal radiation is linear with the absolute temperature. In this so-called Rayleigh-Jeans approximation, the upwelling brightness temperature of the emitted radiation above a surface is TS?(1 ? Rp). Since downwelling radiation Tsky also contributes to the observed radiation by the fraction reflected at the surface, the total radiation TBp received by a radiometer oriented towards the surface can be expressed by:TBp=(1?Rp)TS+RpTsky(1)The value of Tsky is determined by the cosmic background temperature of ��2.7 K and enhanced by an atmospheric contribution. At 1.4 GHz, this enhancement is almost constant, leading to 4 K < Tsky < 5 K. Since the terrestrial surface temperature is much larger than Tsky, the brightness temperature TBp has a strong sensitivity to Rp.

The sensitivity of TBp with volumetric soil water content WC [m3 m?3] is established through Rp, being dependent on the relative dielectric constant. The latter is a strong function of WC due to the marked contrast between the permittivity of free water (��80) and dry soil (��3 to 5). This allows the soil surface-water content to be determined from its reflectivity by applying dielectric Cilengitide mixing (e.g., [9�C11]) and radiative transfer models. Typically, TBp of a very dry bare soil can be 150 K higher than for the same soil in the saturated moisture state.Two different soil-depth ranges are of relevance: First, TS represents an effective soil temperature averaged over the emission depth of the microwave radiation in the soil [12]. For a dry soil this can be 1 m or even more at 1.

4 GHz, whereas for a wet soil the emission depth may be as little as a few centimeters [13]. Second, Rp represents an effective surface reflectivity as a result of the dielectric transition from air to bulk soil with a more or less constant permittivity. In the simplest case of a homogeneous soil with a flat surface, the Fresnel equations [14] can be used to represent Rp at polarization p = H, V and for a certain observation angle. At 1.

Recently, as microprocessors have become greatly enhanced and the

Recently, as microprocessors have become greatly enhanced and the needs for parallel computation have increased, relatively cheaper PC clusters have come available and have proved to be popular in general purposes [13�C16]. Computers in a PC cluster are little different from ordinary personal computers or workstations, and the processor in each computer can interact with others by a message passing protocol such as MPI (Message Passing Interface) [17] or PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) [18], through either an Ethernet or other higher-speed inter-connections. A general PC cluster consists of a master node, several slave nodes and network devices. A master node takes the role of the user interface, data input/output/distribution and control of slave nodes, and the slave nodes are responsible for data processing.

In this study, we used a PC cluster to evaluate the proposed parallel algorithm.2.2.2. Performance Evaluation(1) SpeedupThe speedup Sp(n) is defined as the ratio of the time required by an optimal sequential algorithm using one processor versus that required by a parallel algorithm, using p processors, processing input data of size n [18]. Ideally, Sp(n) should be p, but does not attain p, owing to overhead such as communication between processors and other delays:Sp(n)=T(n)Tp(n)(1)where T(n) is the time complexit
Monitoring the environmental conditions of places like museums, buildings, or archaeological sites requires wide nets of different sensing Drug_discovery devices [1]. Likewise, there should be different visual quality requirements for video sensor applications.

Most security systems, with their transmission bandwidth and computing power both being sufficient, emphasize their automatic recognition techniques. In some situations such as baby monitors and intruder avoidance, the decision function of security systems can be shifted to the concerned human if the video information can be provided inexpensively. For instance, the mother does not need to know the details of her baby��s face, but the general behavior of her baby, like whether it has fallen down from the bed. With the possibility of very small displays on wrist-watch type cellphones, the low visual quality is tolerated with the convenient help of human decision-making. Therefore, the promotion of mobile video communication under very low data rate such as below 10 Kbps is appropriate now.Video coding with a bit rate below 10 Kbps has not been considered as a practical application in commercial communication systems because speech transmission is conventionally the major application for the real time communication. As a result, a user in the present multiple access system is usually assigned a fixed conceptual channel with the bit rate of speech signal.

A global positioning scheme which consists of the local position

A global positioning scheme which consists of the local positioning method, the simple correction algorithm, the three-dimensional transformation algorithm and position prediction algorithm in blind areas is proposed to obtain real-time global positioning information for the miners.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the architecture and deployment scenario of MPPS. In Section 3, the data models of global positioning systems are studied. In Section 4, we introduce the global positioning scheme. In Section 5, we analyze the prototype system and experimental results. A brief overview of related work is introduced in Section 6. Finally, we conclude the paper.2.

?The System Architecture and Deployment Scenario2.1.

The System ArchitectureAs shown in Figure 1, the MPPS architecture is divided into three layers: the field monitoring layer, the upper supervision layer, and the remote supervision layer. The field monitoring layer includes the mobile nodes, the reference nodes, the gateways and the base stations. The communication between the mobile node, the reference node and the gateway is wireless. The mobile nodes continuously receive the reference nodes’ location and RSSI within a one hop coverage area, calculate their own locations based on a locating algorithm, and send them to the gateway through multi-hop routing. The gateway then sends the original location information to the base station through RS-485 bus.

The base station collects the location information of all miners on its own level and sends it to the upper computer after packaging through the controller area network (Controller Area Network: CAN) bus.

Figure 1.Architecture of MPPS.The upper supervision layer includes the upper computer, which is equipped with a CAN bus card in addition to a local area network (Local Area Network: LAN) card. The upper computer can communicate with the base station through the CAN card. The upper computer continuously receives the packets from the base station through the CAN interface, and then processes and visualizes these data packets. Based on the client/server model, the remote Anacetrapib supervision level can also be divided into three layers, namely the database server Drug_discovery layer, web server layer, and browser layer.

The database server and web server are connected with the upper computer through the LAN bus complying with the TCP/IP protocol. The remote monitoring computers are connected with the web server through the Internet, and are used to monitor a variety of statistical information of MPPS through a browser.2.2. The Deployment ScenarioThe tunnel network partition for a real coal mine [18] is shown in Figure 2.

0��10-9 g?mL-l A 1��10-2 mol?L-l stock solution of potassium

0��10-9 g?mL-l. A 1��10-2 mol?L-l stock solution of potassium promotion info ferricyanide was prepared by dissolving the required amount of compound in distilled water. Diluted solutions of potassium ferricyanide were prepared by mixing portions of the stock solution with the required amounts of NaOH/NaHCO3 solution.2.2. Microchip FabricationPDMS is useful for microfluidic fabrication and application because of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries several important properties, including its mechanical flexibility, gas permeability and optical transparency. Moreover, its elasticity and hermetic self-sealing properties make multilayer construction of PDMS-based devices relatively straightforward. PDMS molding is used almost exclusively for rapid prototyping in corporate environments because of its simplicity and fast turnaround time.

In this paper, the microchips Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries employed in the experiments were fabricated with PDMS and glass using standard techniques. The PDMS chip is cured, removed, and then pressed or bonded onto a glass substrate to create a complex microchannel by the monolithic pouring method. The bottom chip was fabricated in glass using conventional wet chemical etching. In a final Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries step, a glass chip was bonded to the PDMS chip to yield a network of closed channels. The upper layer and the bottom layer having different channels. The upper layer had the preconcentration Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries microchannels (AB, 5 mm length and 150 ��m diameter) and the lower PDMS layer had ��Y�� shape reaction microchannels (150 ��m wide and 150 ��m deep). The reservoirs (R1, R2 R3 and R4) were punched on the upper PDMS layer using a round hollow punch,2.

3. Monolith column polymerizationFor the polymerization of the monolith column butyl methacrylate (BMA), ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), 2,2��-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) and methanol/ethanol were used as the monomer, cross-linking agent, initiator and porogenic solvents, respectively. The detailed monolith column polymerization processes was carried out as follows: first, Carfilzomib the microchannels flushed by sodium hydroxide solution and double distilled water were washed with silanization solution containing 30% (V/V) ��-MAPS in acetone. Prior to mixing with the porogenic solvents, EDMA and BMA were mixed with fresh basic alumina powder to remove the added inhibitor. After purging with nitrogen for 3 min, the mixture consisting of 75% porogenic solvents and 25% monomers were pumped into microchannel for the subsequent polymerization.

The porogenic solvent used was a mixture of methanol and ethanol with a ratio of 5:3. A 1:1 mixture of BMA and EDMA was used as monomer. Then, 365 nm UV light was used to irradiate the mixture from the top from a 5 cm distance through a mask to control the location of the BMA monolithic column on the microchip. The BMA monolithic column was polymerized in-situ in an ultraviolet read this transparent PDMS microchannel on a homemade microfluidic chip; it was finally washed with methanol at 2.0 ��L?min-1 for 30 min.