, 2006, Aguiar and Maugeri, 2010 and Alvarado-Huallanco and Mauge

, 2006, Aguiar and Maugeri, 2010 and Alvarado-Huallanco and Maugeri, 2010). A typical composition of the reaction mixture is: 65 g/100 g FOS, 25 g/100 g glucose, 5 g/100 g fructose, and 5 g/100 g sucrose (Aguiar and Maugeri, 2010, Alvarado-Huallanco

and Maugeri, 2010 and Sangeetha et al., 2004). Nizhizawa, Nakajima, & Nabetani (2001) proposed to increase the content of FOS by Afatinib mw simultaneous removal of glucose via an enzymatic reaction, since glucose is an inhibitor of the enzymatic reaction at concentrations higher than 10–15 g/100 g. However, the results from this study have shown another possibility to increase the yield of FOS in the reaction media. The zeolite NaX was shown to be selective for glucose and fructose, since about 20 g/100 g of the initial concentration was recovered after 60 min of reaction, while for FOS and sucrose a very low adsorption was detected. Therefore, this

zeolite type can be used in situ to remove the excess of glucose during the enzymatic reaction of FOS production. This strategy will allow the use of high initial concentration of sucrose, compensating the amount of fructose that will bind to the zeolite, increasing the FOS yield. In this work, single component adsorption Daporinad ic50 of glucose, fructose, sucrose and fructooligosaccharides using six cationic forms (Na+, Ca+2, Ba+2, Sr2+, K+ and Mg2+) of the X zeolite was investigated in stirred tank reactor. A mathematical model was proposed taking into account the kinetic and mass transfer phenomena. Based on the experimental results, the most appropriated form to separate glucose, fructose Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) and sucrose from the reaction medium was determined, which are the adsorbent in the forms NaX, NaX or BaX and MgX or CaX, respectively. The FOS adsorption kinetics was performed using

the NaX zeolite, so that a low adsorption capacity and a higher mass transfer resistance were found, which resulted in a low efficiency separation. The analysis over the estimated parameters and experimental led to a conclusion that the NaX zeolite was the most appropriated adsorber, since it showed higher adsorption rates and, mainly, lower mass transfer resistance than any other cationic forms. The strategy adopted to select the adsorbent material was shown to be interesting and applicable for the selection of any other adsorbent material for the separation of bioproducts of interest, since the criterion is based on experimental data, adsorption rates and mass transfer phenomena. The authors are grateful to CNPq for the financial support and scholarship. “
“Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is a major cause of anovulatory infertility, irregular menstrual cycles, and hirsutism [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Obesity is present in 30% to 75% of women with PCOS.

An Intel Core2 computer controlled the timing of the events The

An Intel Core2 computer controlled the timing of the events. The displays were presented on a LaCie 22″ monitor with a resolution of 1024 × 768 pixels. Eye movements were registered with the Desktop Mount EyeLink1000. The EyeLink1000 has a temporal resolution of 1000 Hz and a spatial resolution that is smaller than 0.5°. Although the system can compensate minimal head movements, the participant’s head was stabilized using a chin rest. The distance between the monitor and

the chin rest was 65 cm. Participants performed the experiment in a sound-attenuated and dimly lit room. Participants performed two sessions: the positive affect condition and the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html neutral condition. The time between these two sessions was at least 24 h. The order of the Alectinib datasheet sessions was counterbalanced between participants. The order of each session was the following: first questionnaire, calibration procedure, practice trials of eye movement task, movie fragment, second questionnaire, experimental trials eye of movement task. These elements will now discussed in detail. In the questionnaire participants indicated on a five-point scale whether they were refreshed vs. tired, calm vs. anxious, alert

vs. unaware, amused vs. sober and positive vs. negative (Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987). Zero on this scale indicates the first extreme (i.e. 0 is positive, 5 is negative). Each session started with a nine-point grid calibration procedure. Participants were required to saccade towards nine fixation points sequentially appearing at random in a 3 × 3 grid. In addition, simultaneously fixating the central fixation point and pressing the space bar recalibrated the system by zeroing the offset of the measuring device at the start of each trial. See Fig. 1 for an example of the display sequence. Participants viewed a display containing a plus sign (0.70°) on a black background in the centre of the display, which was used as fixation point. The color of the plus sign indicated the

MYO10 type of trial: red indicated an antisaccade trials and green indicated a prosaccade trial. Half the trials were prosaccade trials and the other half were antisaccade trials. After 1000 ms the fixation point disappeared and 250 ms after the fixation point offset one circle (1.30° in diameter) appeared at a distance of 10° either to the right or left side. The circle appeared at the same Y coordinate as the fixation point. The target was presented for 1500 ms. Afterwards all objects were removed from the display. The practice of the eye movement task consisted of 40 trials. Participants were instructed to fixate the central fixation point until target onset and to then move their eyes towards or away from the target location (depending on the task). It was stressed that one had to make a single accurate saccade toward the correct location. Participants heard a short tone when the saccade latency was higher than 600 ms or shorter than 80 ms.

35, n = 372) over the Adriatic and Aegean sub-basins ( Figure 5h)

35, n = 372) over the Adriatic and Aegean sub-basins ( Figure 5h). However, the maximum positive correlation between Fos and SST (R > 0.6, n = 372)

occurs over the Adriatic and Aegean sub-basins and the Black Sea. The effect of air-sea heat fluxes on SST displays seasonal behaviour. The percentage of the study area in which Fn significantly affects SST ranges from 14% in winter to 59% in autumn. However, the percentage of the study area in which Fos significantly affects SST ranges from 45% in summer to 100% in autumn. This result supports find more the previous findings of Skliris et al. (2012), who found that the Mediterranean SST variability is largely explained by air-sea heat fluxes. Analysis of results for the different Fn components indicates that the study area SST is explained by

the sensible heat flux, net long-wave radiation and latent heat flux values. This is in disagreement with the previous findings of Skliris et al. (2012), who stated that the latent heat explains more of the Mediterranean SST than do the other Fn components. This disagreement is probably because Skliris et al. (2012) examined a study period extending only from 1985 to 2008 and used a different database to extract air-sea heat fluxes. Annual correlations between SST and NAO, SLP, P, TCC, τax, τay, T2m, Fn and Fos were significant over 38%, 55%, E7080 order 16%, Phosphoprotein phosphatase 55%, 18%, 25%, 100%, 54% and 26% of the study area respectively (data not shown). This may indicate that the interannual correlations of the studied atmospheric parameters explain less of the Mediterranean SST variability over the study area than do the monthly correlations.

The only exception is Fn, the inter-annual correlations of which explain more of the Mediterranean SST variability than do the monthly correlation. In this section, time series analysis is used to reveal the SST variation between the 10 sub-basins of the study area, all of which display an annual positive trend ranging from 0.024 °C yr− 1 to 0.05 °C yr− 1 (Figure 6 and Table 2). The 10 studied sub-basins display a range of annual average SST values of approximately 6.2 °C, ranging from 15.0 °C in the Black Sea to 21.2 °C in the Levantine sub-basin. The annual average SST of the AAM sub-basin is approximately 0.6 °C higher than that of the adjacent Mediterranean Sea sub-basin, i.e. the Alboran sub-basin, most markedly in autumn. However, the annual average SST of the Black Sea is approximately 4.1 °C lower than that of the adjacent Mediterranean Sea sub-basin, i.e. the Aegean sub-basin, most markedly in winter (Figure 6 and Table 2). The annual average COV of the study area SST displays important spatial variability: the maximum variability occurs over the Black Sea (COV = 42%), while the minimum variability occurs over the AAM sub-basin (COV = 11.8%).

Alternatively, in terms of solute concentration in mole fraction

Alternatively, in terms of solute concentration in mole fraction (i.e.   moles of solute per total moles of all species), per regular solution theory [53], the single-solute osmotic virial equation for solute i   is [45] and [55] equation(6) π̃=xi+Bii∗xi2+Ciii∗xi3+…,where π̃ is osmole fraction (unitless), xi   is the mole fraction of solute i  , and Bii∗ and Ciii∗ are the second and third mole fraction-based osmotic virial coefficients of solute i, respectively (unitless). Osmole fraction is a rarely-used alternative form of osmolality, defined as [14] equation(7) π̃=-μ1-μ1oRT.Comparing Eqs. (1) and (7), osmolality Sirolimus solubility dmso and osmole fraction

are related by equation(8) π̃=M1π. The osmotic virial coefficients in Eqs. (5) and (6) account for increasing orders of interaction

between molecules of solute i  : the second osmotic virial coefficient represents interactions between two solute i   molecules, the third osmotic virial coefficient represents interactions between three solute i   molecules, and so forth. As such, these coefficients represent the non-ideality of the solute—if they are all zero, solute i   is thermodynamically ideal. For electrolyte solutes, solute concentration must be multiplied by an additional parameter, the dissociation constant [56] equation(9) π=kimi+Bii(kimi)2+Ciii(kimi)3+…,π=kimi+Bii(kimi)2+Ciii(kimi)3+…, Ibrutinib nmr equation(10) π̃=ki∗xi+Bii∗(ki∗xi)2+Ciii∗(ki∗xi)3+…,where ki   is the molality-based dissociation constant of solute i   and ki∗ is the mole fraction-based dissociation constant of solute i. This dissociation constant empirically accounts for ionic dissociation, charge screening, and other additional complexities inherent to electrolytes

[56]; for non-electrolyte solutes, its value is effectively 1. Through a simple, empirical demonstration, Pricket et al. [56] have shown that for applications of interest to cryobiology, this approach for electrolytes is as accurate as the more sophisticated Pitzer–Debye–Huckel approach. To obtain values of the osmotic virial coefficients and (if applicable) the Lepirudin dissociation constant for any solute of interest, Eqs. (5), (6), (9) and (10) can be curve-fit to osmometric (i.e. concentration versus osmolality) data for a binary aqueous solution containing that single solute. The osmotic virial equation can be extended to multi-solute solutions by introducing osmotic virial cross-coefficients, which represent interactions between molecules of different solutes [14] and [45]—for example, for a solution containing (r − 1) solutes, the molality-based osmotic virial equation (i.e. Eq. (5)) can be written as follows equation(11) π=∑i=2rmi+∑i=2r∑j=2rBijmimj+∑i=2r∑j=2r∑k=2rCijkmimjmk+…,where Bij, Ciij, Cijj, Cijk, etc. are cross-coefficients (e.g. Bij accounts for interactions between one molecule of solute i and one of solute j).

” This professionalism is determined by attitudes and performance

” This professionalism is determined by attitudes and performance, very often shaped by the culture of the shipping company [15]. The IMO also stresses the importance of safety management systems in shipping. And, in accordance with Cooper’s safety culture model, IMO recognizes the bi-directional link between safety culture and safety management. The IMO’s International Safety Management (ISM)

Code provides a standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. The ISM Code is mandatory and establishes safety management objectives. It requires that a safety management FDA approved Drug Library system be established by whoever is responsible for the operation of the ship. The philosophy underlying the application of the ISM Code supports and encourages the development of a safety culture in the shipping industry. The Code constitutes a system of self-regulation of safe ship operation as well as occupational safety and health on board. The Code requires procedures to ensure safe operation, the management IGF-1R inhibitor of risk, procedures for reporting and analyzing accidents and conformities, and procedures for internal audits and reviews [16]. The efficacy of the ISM

Code has been investigated in several studies but no definitive indication has been provided. Tzannatos and Kokotos [17] found that the Code had a positive outcome in Greek shipping. After examining accidents involving Greek-flagged ships between 1993 and 2006 (i.e., before and after the implementation of the ISM Code), the implementation of the ISM Code led to an overall reduction of human-induced accidents (from 64% to 52%), although Greek-flagged ships still maintained their dominance in shipping accidents. In the pre-ISM period, tankers and Ropax vessels were also deeply linked to human-induced accidents, but implementation of the ISM Code managed to remove this link [17]. However, the ISM Code has been criticized because of the increased amount of

paperwork and bureaucracy. Moreover, the standardization of the management of safety and the demand for written procedures are perceived by many seafarers as going against common sense, experience, and the professional knowledge of seamanship [18]. For effective self-regulation of safety and occupational safety and health to be achieved, the implementation of safety CYTH4 management systems must go hand in hand with employer’s safety commitment and employee’s participation in safety management decision-making [19]. These factors are very much associated with the safety culture in an organization. Employee participation in decision-making will enhance their commitment to take action and implement changes when needed [20]. Good communication and listening skills across organizational levels, groups and individuals strengthens a shared situational awareness of risk and safety [21]. Effective communication and employee participation are also factors that drive organizational change [20] and [22].

This study has various limitations that may be addressed by futur

This study has various limitations that may be addressed by future studies. Although we examined verbal and non-verbal measures of working memory and declarative memory, only a non-verbal measure of procedural memory was included. On the one hand, this is sufficient for testing the PDH, which expects that even non-verbal procedural memory deficits should be observed in SLI. And selleck given that any verbal procedural

memory measure may be contaminated by language deficits, this is a purer approach. Nevertheless, future studies examining the status of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI would benefit from the inclusion of measures of verbal procedural memory as well. The present study also leaves many other avenues open for further research. We did not examine how declarative memory may underlie grammar in its compensatory role – e.g., via chunking, learning rules explicitly, or conceptual/semantic parsing (see, Introduction). Additionally, although the present study tested associations between performance at memory systems and lexical and grammatical abilities, it did not investigate any causal effects of MEK inhibitor the posited dependence of these abilities

on declarative or procedural memory. Finally, we limited our investigation to behaviour, and did not probe the neural bases of SLI, or of the observed language and memory deficits in the disorder. In conclusion, the evidence from this and other studies seems to suggest the following. SLI is associated with procedural memory deficits. Declarative memory is intact for visual information, and for verbal information once working memory and language deficits are controlled Resminostat for. Working memory is normal for visuo-spatial information, but appears to be problematic in the verbal domain. Lexical abilities in SLI

(and TD) children are related at least in part to declarative memory. In TD children, grammatical abilities are related at least partly to procedural memory. In SLI, variability in grammatical abilities seems to be explained both by procedural memory deficits and by compensation by the largely intact declarative memory system. Overall, the evidence appears to largely support the predictions of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis, or PDH (Ullman and Pierpont, 2005), though additional research is needed to further investigate a number of issues. In sum, this study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering multiple memory systems and their interactions in developing our understanding of the nature of the language difficulties in SLI. This research was supported by Wellcome Trust Grant #079305. “
“Synaesthesia is a condition in which one property of a stimulus induces a conscious experience of an additional attribute. For example, in grapheme-colour synaesthesia, a visually presented grapheme results in synaesthetic experiences of colour.

In conclusion, we have

In conclusion, we have Metformin mouse shown that CBF was reduced in elderly males with mild to moderate CHF, and was independently associated with factors that represent the severity of CHF. Reduced CBF was associated with impaired physical performance, and deteriorated quality of life, as well. Future studies are now needed to tease out possible association of CBF with cerebral disorders known to be more potentiated in the population with heart failure as well as to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. “
“Radiation vasculopathy affects patients with primary brain tumor and causes significant morbidity from

ischemia related to hemodynamic insufficiency [1] and [2]. In these patients, medical management for secondary stroke prevention commonly includes HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins. Previous studies have shown that statin use improves cerebrovascular reactivity [3]. We report a contradictory finding in a unique patient with radiation vasculopathy and suggest broader implications for patients with hemodynamic insufficiency. check details A 66 year old man who underwent surgery and radiation for glioblastoma multiforme presented 6 months post surgery with new onset left sided weakness. He was found with a right

middle cerebral artery infarct and placed on simvastatin along with aspirin. He underwent a baseline transcranial Doppler (TCD) and then had his statin withdrawn. He was then brought back to the clinic 6 weeks later for follow-up study. Initial TCD showed no significant stenoses by velocity criteria in the proximal vessels of the circle of Willis. Interestingly, however, there was flow diversion on the right with ACA > MCA velocity, suggesting distal stenosis. The breath holding index was 0.42. 6 weeks later, after statin withdraw, TCD showed persistent flow diversion, but significant improvement in the BHI to 0.78. The data from this patient suggests small arteriolar disease from radiation vasculopathy causing poor hemodynamic flow to the right hemisphere.

Although the precise means by which statins worsen the hemodynamic flow to the affected hemisphere is unknown, the mechanism we propose below for this finding is based on previous studies in which statins almost have been shown to improve cerebrovascular flow [3]. While these findings seem to be contradictory, the finding in radiation vasculopathy is actually a logical extension of the larger theory regarding statin effects on cerebral blood flow and in fact corroborates the other findings of flow augmentation. Statins have the effect of decreasing cholesterol synthesis, and do so by inhibiting the upstream enzyme HMG CoA reductase. The downstream effect of this inhibition is the decreased production of not only cholesterol, but also geranyl pyrophosphate, a constituent of the family of small GTPases known as Rho. In the absence of geranyl pyrophosphate, less of the Rho GTPases are active [4].

With the aim of targeting prostate cancer (PCa), a PtIV prodrug (

With the aim of targeting prostate cancer (PCa), a PtIV prodrug (for CDDP) has been encapsulated into aptamer (Apt)-targeted poly

(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) forming a Pt-PLGA-b-PEG-Apt-NP conjugate (40) engineered to target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). These nanoparticles demonstrated enhanced in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK), biodistribution, tolerability and efficacy. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for Pt-PLGA-b-PEG-NP was 40 mg/kg while that of CDDP and the prodrug alone was 20 mg/kg. The Pt in 40 remained in systemic circulation one hour post-administration [ 41••], longer than for cisplatin itself. Since the androgen receptor (AR) is upregulated in breast, IWR-1 manufacturer ovarian and prostate tumour cells, Huxley et al. have designed multiple androgenic steroidal ligands with various nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings conjugated to either cis-platin or trans-platin (41 and 42, Figure 3d) as platinum drug delivery vectors. These [PtII(NH3)2Cl(steroid)] conjugates were 2–12-fold more cytotoxic than the non-steroidal complexes, but with a similar activity range as CDDP. Interestingly, the cis-complex conjugates displayed two to threefold higher activity than their trans analogues. Conjugation to lipophilic testosterone appears to help the cationic complexes through the cell membrane [ 42]. Many proliferating cells have a high

demand for cobalamin Afatinib datasheet (Cbl, coenzyme vitamin B12) making it an attractive carrier. Enzymatic reduction of complexes of the type B12-CN-PtII (Figure 3g) releases PtII diammine complexes. Complex 43 was the most active but still with an IC50 ca. 27-fold

higher than free CDDP; conjugates 44 and 45 were ca. 180-fold less active than free cisplatin towards A2780 ovarian and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The reduced cytotoxicity was attributed to a low receptor-mediated response [43]. Nowotnik et al. have reviewed the nano-polymer, ProLindac™ (46), consisting of the active Pt(R,R-dach)2+ fragment of oxaliplatin bound to hydroxypropylmethacryl-amide (HMPA). Release of the active platinum pharamacophore Montelukast Sodium was ca. seven-times greater at pH 5.4 in comparison to pH 7.4 after 24 hours. The superior activity of ProLindac™ over oxaliplatin was shown in both human and mouse xenograft models, while the cytotoxicity profile of 46 was similar to oxaliplatin [ 2•• and 44]. Release of nitric oxide (NO) from prodrugs is usually activated by glutathione reductase in tumour cells resulting in growth inhibition of cancerous tissues. Duan et al. have synthesised both hydrophilic poly(acrylic)-cis-[Pt(NH3)2(carboxylate)2] (47 and 48) and hydrophobic NO-donating (49) prodrugs ( Figure 3h) combining NO prodrug therapy with Pt based-therapy. The extended life-times of both prodrugs suggest potential future use in combination therapy.

M can be calculated from P by diagonalisation to obtain PD, and t

M can be calculated from P by diagonalisation to obtain PD, and then transforming it with its matrix of Eigenvectors A, according to: equation(5) M=PNcyc=(APDA-1)Ncyc=APDNcycA-1 The CPMG element P consists of two concatenated Hahn echoes, H, each of which consists of two equal delays of duration τcp, separated by a 180° pulse (Eq. (30)): equation(6) H=O*OH=O*O The effect of a single CPMG unit GSI-IX price is then given by equation(7) P=H*H=OO*O*OP=H*H=OO*O*Oas

derived in Eq. (42), from which M can be calculated using Eq. (5) (Eq. (46)). As implicitly assumed by Carver and Richards, the effects of chemical exchange during signal detection will be neglected (though this assumption can be removed– see Supplementary Section 7), and IG(Trel) calculated from: equation(8) IG(Trel)=M(0,0)PG+M(0,1)PEIG(Trel)=M(0,0)PG+M(0,1)PEwhere 0, 0 and 0, 1 specify the required matrix elements of M. Insertion of this result into Eq. (1) gives the final result for R2,eff (Eq. (50)), summarised selleck products in Appendix A. Combining the matrix Eq. (46) with the results in Supplementary Section 7 to give R2,eff including the effects of chemical exchange during detection will further improve the theoretical description of the experiment [41]. The free precession matrix R+ can be related to its diagonalised form RD via the transformation R = JRDJ−1

such that: equation(9) O=eR+t=eJRDJ-1=JeRD+tJ-1 From which it follows that the matrix exponential is given in terms of two characteristic frequencies, the Eigenvalues f00 and f11, corresponding to the ground and excited state ensembles respectively: equation(10) eRD+t=e-tR2Ge-tf0000e-tf11 A factor of R2G has been factored from both f00 and f11, which allows us to express them conveniently in terms of the difference in relaxation,

ΔR2 = R2E − R2G in what follows and so: equation(11) f00=12(ΔR2+kEX+iΔω)-12h2+ih1f11=12(ΔR2+kEX+iΔω)+12h2+ih1where h1=2Δω(ΔR2+kEG-kGE)h1=2Δω(ΔR2+kEG-kGE) equation(12) h2=(ΔR2+kEG-kGE)2+4kEGkGE-Δω2h2=(ΔR2+kEG-kGE)2+4kEGkGE-Δω2 The identity h2+ih1=h3+ih4, enables us to explicitly separate the real and the imaginary components of the Eigenvalues: h3=12h2+h12+h22 equation(13) h4=12-h2+h12+h22 In terms of these substitutions, Liothyronine Sodium f00 and f11 are then succinctly expressed as: equation(14) f00=12(ΔR2+kEX-h3)+i2(Δω-h4)f11=12(ΔR2+kEX+h3)+i2(Δω+h4) The real part of the two Eigenvalues, f  00R   and f  11R   describe the effective relaxation rates of the two ensembles, and the imaginary parts f  00I   and f  11I   define the frequencies where the resonance will ultimately be observed. The imaginary component, f  00I   denotes the exchange-induced shift in the observed position of the ground state resonance [24]. The following useful sum and difference relations: equation(15) f11R+f00R=ΔR2+kEXf11I+f00I=Δωf11R-f00R=h3f11I-f00I=h4play an important role in the CPMG experiment and emerge explicitly as arguments of trigonometric terms in the final expression for R  2,eff   (Eq. (41)).

In conclusion it can be said that each of the above hypotheses ma

In conclusion it can be said that each of the above hypotheses may explain part of the variation between species. However, a quantitative prediction for a species based on measurement RO4929097 mouse of another one cannot be made due to the complexity of physiology and ecology. Only empirical data are appropriate to gain insight in the metabolism of a particular arthropod species. The research was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P20802-B16. We greatly appreciate the help with electronics by G.

Stabentheiner and with data evaluation by M. Bodner, M. Brunnhofer, M. Fink, P. Kirchberger, A. Lienhard, L. Mirwald and A. Settari. Many thanks also to two anonymous reviewers for very helpful comments. “
“Olfactory coding follows an orderly sequence of information flow that is comparable across animal species (Ache and Young, 2005 and Hildebrand and Shepherd, 1997). The primary sensory cells express a large repertoire of receptor proteins (the olfactory receptors). Axons of receptor cells converge onto olfactory glomeruli in the antennal lobe (insects) or olfactory bulb (mammals). From there, this orderly information is relayed to higher-order brain areas. Because each glomerulus collects information from one receptor neuron

family, odor information is encoded in the pattern of physiological activity across glomeruli. This combinatorial information constitutes the basis of olfactory processing, and has been investigated using techniques as diverse as single cell recording (Krofczik Navitoclax et al., 2008), patch-clamp (Wilson et al., 2004), multi-unit recordings (Lei et

al., 2004) and optical imaging (Friedrich and Korsching, 1997 and Joerges et al., 1997). The capacity of optical imaging to record from many neurons at the same time while knowing their spatial relationships has made this technique particularly fruitful for unraveling the neural basis of olfactory processing (Galizia and Menzel, 2001). In insects, it is possible to identify comparable glomeruli across animals (Berg et Suplatast tosilate al., 2002, Galizia et al., 1999a and Laissue et al., 1999), making this approach even more powerful, and allowing for the generation of a functional atlas of odor-response patterns, as done in the honeybee (Galizia et al., 1999b and Sachse et al., 1999) (http://neuro.uni-konstanz.de/honeybeealatlas). In most species, multiple olfactory systems coexist. In rodents, for example, several parallel olfactory systems code for odors: the main olfactory system, the vomeronasal system, the Grueneberg organ and the septal organ, with different occurrences depending on the species (Breer et al., 2006). Most importantly, while some odors are coded exclusively within one of these organs, others can be coded in parallel in several of these organs. In insects, parallel processing in multiple olfactory tracts has evolved in several lineages (Galizia and Rossler, 2010). In social hymenoptera (e.g.