Especially the expression of integrin-α6 seems to be an interesting hallmark in these changes. However, the detected changes (mostly an up-regulation) in mRNA expression were not reflected at the protein level and location, as detected by an IHC approach. This indicates that either the protein regulation is more complex than just based on mRNA expression or the histochemical approach was not able to detect the subtle integrin changes induced by LVAD support, or both. In
summary, #Modulators randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# despite previous reports on changes in integrin expression after LVAD support, suggesting a role as anchoring proteins in reverse remodeling, the changes observed in the present study on integrin expression and basal membrane protein expression showed no or in most cases only marginal changes. However, this does not exclude a role for these molecules in remodeling as such. The set of tissues pre- and post-LVAD tissues analyzed in this study is unique in its composition and availability. However, the group of LVAD patients studied was relatively small and this makes statistical analysis on the influence of medication, age, and gender difficult. No significant differences were observed in patients (both DCM and IHD) that received additional treatment or not. Also, the duration of support varied (55–548 days), which might have influenced the data. However, the changes in expression Selleck BKM120 of integrins
(if observed at all) did not show any significant correlation with time of support (data not shown). A final limitation is the availability of control heart
tissue. We used myocardial tissues from autopsy hearts from patients without cardiac problems and Oxalosuccinic acid non-used donor hearts. No differences were observed in integrin expression between both controls in this study. The pre- and post-LVAD myocardial tissues were directly fixed or frozen after operation and were therefore relatively fresh. Still, we cannot totally exclude that this has influenced the comparison between LVAD tissues and controls. Dr. M.F.M. Van Oosterhout was supported by the Nederlandse Hartstichting (Dutch Heart Foundation); project number 2004T31. “
“Anatomical coronary dominance is defined by the origin of the posterior descending artery (PDA). Left coronary dominance has been shown to be associated with aortic valve disorders in multiple studies , ,  and . More recently, the relation between arterial dominance and coronary artery disease (CAD) has been described, including the severity of CAD and prognosis after an acute coronary syndrome ,  and . In patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, left coronary dominance was independently associated with increased long-term mortality This could imply that, on the long term, there will be a relative decrease of patients with left arterial dominance in the population.