These A6 strains have spread geographically into disparate locale

These A6 strains have spread geographically into disparate locales and now account for most of the diseases caused by EHEC [12]. Figure 1 Stepwise evolutionary model for E. coli O157:H7 from ancestral O55:H7 [11]. In red letters are the possible events happening and where they occurred during the stepwise evolution. The circle in gray represents an intermediary A3 CC, which has not yet been isolated. SOR – sorbitol fermentation [if (+) fermenting, if (-) non-fermenting or slow fermenting]. GUD – β-D-glucuronidase activity. IS629 seems to play an important role in the diversification of closely related strains,

specifically O157:H7 [7]. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of IS629 in a panel of E. coli strains, including GDC-0068 clinical trial ancestral and atypical strains associated with the stepwise emergence of E. coli O157:H7 to determine the prevalence of IS629 and its selleck impact on the transitional steps that gave rise to today’s highly pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Results IS629 prevalence in E. coli O157:H7 genomes The IS629 sequence, recently KPT-330 ic50 found to be inserted into the gne

gene in E. coli O rough:H7 (MA6 and CB7326) [4, 13], was used for a BLAST analysis of the genomes of 4 E. coli O157:H7 strains belonging to A6 CC (EDL933, Sakai, EC4115 and TW14359) and one O55:H7 strain (CB9615) (Additional file 1, Table S1). The BLAST analysis for IS629 showed the presence of between 22 and 25 copies in each strain along with their corresponding plasmid (Table 1). Strains Sakai and EDL933 shared 13 of those IS629 on the chromosome and three on their pO157 plasmids. Strains EC4115 and TW14359 had 17 IS629 on the chromosome and four on their pO157 plasmid in common. The analysis of the recently

released E. coli O55:H7 genome strain CB9615 [14] allowed for identification of one IS629 with an internal 86 bp deletion on the chromosome and an IS629 in its corresponding pO55 plasmid. Neither the O55 genomic (located on the chromosome backbone) nor the pO55 plasmid IS629 insertion sites were present in other O157:H7 strains. The absence of the pO55 IS629 insertion site in O157:H7 strains was expected since they do not carry the pO55 plasmid. N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase However, lack of the genomic O55 IS629 insertion site in O157:H7 strains is interesting as these strains are known to be closely related [14]. Contrary to what was observed for plasmids pO157 and pO55, IS629 was absent in plasmid pSFO157 (E. coli O157:H- strain 439-89). However, a 66 bp sequence identical to IS629 was observed in the plasmid which could be a remnant of IS629. No genomic sequence is available for an O157:H- strain at this time, thus, this strain could not be investigated for the presence of IS629.

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