These findings suggest abnormal activation of those brain areas i

These findings suggest abnormal activation of those brain areas involved in the evaluation of self-reference during mental state attribution. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fructose consumption has markedly increased over the past decades. This intake may increase the urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and other factors associated with kidney stone risk. We prospectively examined

the relationship between fructose intake and incident kidney stones selleckchem in the Nurses’ Health Study I (NHS I) (93 730 older women), the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II) (101 824 younger women), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (45 984 men). Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess free fructose and sucrose intake every 4 years. Total-fructose intake was calculated as free fructose plus half the intake of sucrose, and expressed as percentage of total energy. Cox proportional hazard

regressions were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), thiazide use, caloric intake, and other dietary factors. We documented 4902 incident kidney stones during a combined 48 years of follow-up. The multivariate relative risks of kidney stones significantly increased for participants in the highest compared HDAC inhibitor to the lowest quintile of total-fructose intake for all three study groups. Free-fructose intake was also associated with increased risk. Non-fructose carbohydrates were not associated with increased risk in any cohort. Our study suggests that fructose intake is independently associated

with an increased risk of incident kidney stones.”
“Cognitive decision-making is known to be deficient, but relatively less is known about emotional decision-making in schizophrenia. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) is considered a reliable probe of emotional decision-making and believed to reflect orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. The expectancy-valence model of IGT performance implicates three dissociable components, namely, attention to reward, memory for past, relative to recent, find more outcomes and impulsivity in emotional decision-making. We examined IGT performance, its three components, and their grey matter volume (GMV) correlates in 75 stable patients with schizophrenia, relative to 25 healthy individuals. Patients, relative to controls, showed impaired IGT performance and poor memory for past, relative to recent, outcomes. IGT performance correlated with GMV in the OFC in controls, but not patients. There were associations between (a) attention to reward and GMV in the frontal, temporal, parietal and striatal regions in controls, and in the temporal and thalamic regions in patients, (b) memory for past outcomes and GMV in the temporal region in controls, and the frontal and temporal regions in patients, and (c) low impulsivity and greater GMV in the frontal, temporal, posterior cingulate and occipital regions in controls, and in the frontal, temporal and posterior cingulate regions in patients.

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