This gene set while limited may provide a useful initial guide to

This gene set while limited may provide a useful initial guide to researchers

to probe a strains genetic origin. We propose that using the gene-set as a guide; researchers may be able to design primers for their desired “”niche”" and determine the organism’s ability to survive the niche. Undoubtedly this barcode will have to be continuously monitored and further validated as more genomes are sequenced to uphold its accuracy. Additionally there is always the potential for dairy organisms to be introduced to the gut environment through HSP inhibitor functional food which may lead to them evolving to survive in this environment, for this reason also, we must constantly monitor and update the barcode. Methods Genome Sequences Eleven LAB genomes were selected for analysis. Five from a gut environment; Lb. gasseri ATCC 33323 [NCBI:CP000413] [5], Lb. acidophilus NCFM [NCBI:CP000033] [2]Lb. johnsonii NCC533 [NCBI:AE017198] [5], Lb. salivarius subsp.salivarius UCC118 [NCBI:CP000233] [40] and Lb. reuteri F25 [NCBI:CP000705]

[41] three from a dairy environment; Lb. helveticus DPC4571 [NCBI:CP000517] [1], Lb. delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus ATCC 11842 [NCBI:CR954253] [36] and S. thermophilus LMG 18311 [NCBI:CP000023] [13] and three multi-niche organisms (i.e. can survive in both a gut or dairy environment); Lb. brevis learn more ATCC367 [NCBI:CP000416], Lb. plantarum WCFS1 [NCBI:AL935263] [37], Lb. sakei subsp.sakei 23 K [NCBI:CR936503] [39] (see tables 1 and 3 PIK3C2G for genome features and niche of the genomes). These genomes were ARRY-438162 concentration chosen based on a number of criteria; their phylogenetic proximity to Lb. acidophilus NCFM and Lb. helveticus DPC4571, their availability in the public database and their proven ability to survive a dairy or gut niche. Table 3 Source of isolation and environmental niche of the selected LAB Species Isolated From Environmental Niche Lb. helveticus DPC4571 Cheese Dairy Lb. acidophilus NCFM

Infant faeces Gut Lb. johnsonii NCC533 Human faeces Gut Lb. sakei 23 K Meat Multi-niche Lb. salivarius UCC118 Terminal ileum of human Gut Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC11842 Yoghurt Dairy Lb. plantarum WCFS1 Human saliva Multi-niche S. thermophilus LMG18311 Yoghurt Dairy Lb. reuteri F275 JCM 1112 Adult Intestine Gut Lb. brevis ATCC3567 Silage Multi-niche Lb. gasseri ATCC 33323 Human Gut Gut Determination of the gene set (“”Barcode”") The initial selections were based on an unbiased “”all against all”" comparison of the Lb. acidophilus NCFM and Lb. helveticus DPC4571 genomes. A manual comparison of the two genomes was undertaken producing a gene list containing potential “”gut”" genes (those present in NCFM only) and “”dairy”" genes (those present in DPC4571 only). The differences in the DPC4571 and Lb.

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