Total RPE scores in CAF + CHO and PLA + CHO were slightly with non-significantly lower than those in other treatments (CAF + PLA vs. CAF + CHO vs. PLA + CHO vs. PLA + PLA, 157 ± 18 vs. 152 ± 16 vs. 154 ± 13 vs. 156 ± 17, p > .05). More than half of participants in CAF + CHO (7/11, 64%) and PLA + CHO (6/11, 55%) had lesser total RPE scores while comparing with PLA + PLA condition. Therefore, our study might provide some supports for the attenuation of perceptions of effort resulted from the CHO supplementation.
In addition, our results in RSE performance are partially in agreement with Beaven et al. , who found the CAF and (or) CHO mouth rinse can rapidly enhance initial cycle sprint power production; however, SCH772984 research buy recent study  reported that the CHO mouth rinse could not improve performance during simulated team-sport exercise (i.e., Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test). Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the existence of CHO receptors in oral cavity and their effect on RSE performance. Testosterone and
cortisol concentrations ABT-263 mw have been reported to increase in response to high-intensity activity in humans , and with CAF  or CHO ingestion , respectively. Data from this study show that ingesting CAF or CHO does not alter the circulating levels of testosterone or cortisol, but these levels increased distinctly after the AT- test in all four conditions (Figure 6). One study examined alterations in salivary testosterone and cortisol in nine male cyclists completing repeated sprint test (4 sets of 5 × 30-s sprints, interspersed with 30-s recovery intervals) following caffeinated chewing gum ingestion . Results showed that cortisol was increased by 12% and testosterone decreased
by 21% compared to placebo condition, although testosterone and cortisol levels were not significantly different Dimethyl sulfoxide between caffeine and placebo BIRB 796 supplier trials (p > .05). Testosterone concentration is related to exercise intensity and increases with greater force production, and testosterone/cortisol ratio is associated with the anabolic or catabolic status of skeletal muscle during exercise . Cortisol exhibits catabolic functions and increases in volume with repetitive high-intensity exercise, and the rest interval length also affects the acute cortisol response . However, Beaven et al.  indicated that the anabolic effect of the increase in testosterone concentrations after CAF ingestion may be counteracted by the opposing catabolic effects of the increase in cortisol concentrations. Walker et al.