190 of the 294 healthy mothers offered their newborns’ meconium s

190 of the 294 healthy mothers offered their newborns’ meconium samples for the metal analysis. Those 190 mothers were set as the control group. Arsenic (As), mercury (Hg),

lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) levels in these case-control meconium samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The possible association between the metal levels and maternal GDM risk of studied subjects was assessed by binary logistic regression. Results: GDM prevalence of 12.21% was observed in the investigated 1359 participants. The concentrations of As, Hg, Cr and Cd in studied cases were significantly higher (p smaller than 0.05) than those of controls. After adjustments for maternal age, pre-pregnant body mass index, gravidity, parity, hepatitis B virus infection, Selleck LGX818 and newborn sex, As, Cd and Cr were found to be positively associated with GDM prevalence in dose-dependent manners. Among them, As was detected in all samples and its levels associated the maternal GDM with the adjusted odds ratios of 3.28 [95% CI 1.24, 8.71], 3.35 [95% CI 1.28, 8.75] and 5.25 [95% CI 1.99, 13.86] for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles, respectively. Conclusions: The present work implies that exposure to some of the selected metals (noticeably As) may contribute to maternal GDM risk during pregnancy.”
“Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is widely considered useful to promote tissue regeneration during periodontal AZD8055 treatment. it

has been reported that the main constituent of EMD is amelogenin and that the BMP-like and TGF-beta-like activity of EMD promotes osteogenesis. However, it remains unclear see more whether those activities are dependent on amelogenin or another growth factor contained in EMD. We performed two-dimensional SDS-PAGE analysis of EMD, as well as Western blot analyses using anti-amelogenin, anti-BMP2/4, and anti-TGF-beta 1 antibodies, and amino acid sequencing.

Our results revealed that a large number of splicing forms of amelogenin, BMP2/4, and other unknown molecules were involved in EMD, though TGF-beta 1 was not. In addition we have evaluated intracellular signaling of ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8, binding potential and alkaline phosphatase activity and have explored the potential regulatory relationship between amelogenin and BMP. Amelogenin bound to BMP2 as well as heparin/heparan sulfate. Thus, it was suggested that BMP2/4 carried over in EMD during processing promote binding activity and phosphorylate Smad1/5/8 in osteoblasts. On the other hand, amelogenin did not phosphorylate Smad1/5/8, but rather ERK1/2. Further, high-density amelogenin reduced the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by noggin, though amelogenin did not have antagonistic properties against BMP. Together with the above findings, our findings suggest that the BMP2/4 contaminated during the purification process of EMD because of the avidity of amelogenin plays an important role in signaling pathway of calcification. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc.

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