(b) Arrhenius plot of the memory at different values of electric field. (c) Graphical determination of the trap depth from the dependence of activation energy on the square root of
electric field. In addition to hot hole trapping, the Poole-Frenkel current of the hot electron program was also measured by applying a Go6983 ic50 positive gate voltage. However, the result showed a nonlinear curve. Conversely, the measured result showed a linear dependence see more of current density, divided by the electric field squared, versus the reciprocal electric field (Figure 7a), which is represented by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. This result may indicate that the energy band of the Ti x Zr y Si z O film exhibits shallow trap potential well that could not preserve electrons when applying a positive gate voltage. Therefore, electrons were injected into the charge trapping layer and then went through the blocking oxide to the gate electrode. The band diagram of the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) operation is illustrated in Figure 7b. The expression of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling
on an electric field can be given by : where c represents a constant that depends on the energy barrier height and d is a constant that depends on the electric effective mass for tunneling. Figure 7 Fowler-Nordheim plot (a) and band diagram (b) of the Ti x Zr y Si z O memory under positive gate bias. The linear dependence indicates that FN tunneling AZD4547 concentration is dominant under positive bias. Figure 8a,b shows the program and erase speeds, respectively, of the Ti x Zr y Si z O memory under various operation conditions. Because the memory exhibited the hot hole trapping property, BBHH was applied to programming and CHE was applied to erasing. Figure 8 Program (a) and erase (b) speeds of the Ti x Zr y Si z O memory under various operation conditions. The program and erase speeds for a 2-V voltage shift are 16 and 1.7 μs, respectively. As shown in Figure 8a, the threshold voltage (V t) shift increased with increasing operation voltage; therefore, more ‘hot’ holes were generated and injected into the charge storage layer. The maximum memory window can be as large as 8 V. The program speed is 16 μs with
a −2-V V t shift for the program conditions Ixazomib of V g = −8 V and V d = 8 V. Compared with the erase speed shown in Figure 8b, only 1.7 μs is required for a 2-V V t shift. It is reasonable that the erase speed is approximately ten times faster than the program speed because this memory is programmed by BBHH and erased by CHE. Even at only 6-V operation, the P/E speed can be as fast as 120:5.2 μs with a 2-V V t shift. The fast P/E speed at such low operation voltage is superior to that demonstrated in previous studies [18–20] and is beneficial to the development of high-performance memory. This favorable result is ascribed to the formation of more trapping sites in the Ti x Zr y Si z O film at 600°C annealing, and hence, more carries can be captured in the traps.