In contrast, larger, more relatively hydrophilic poloxamer molecu

In contrast, larger, more relatively hydrophilic poloxamer molecules, such as the species contained in the main peak of poloxamer 188, have the opposite effect and act as membrane sealants [42]. Accordingly, we believe that certain LMW

components of the poloxamer 188 polymeric distribution may act more like Triton detergents to initiate or propagate membrane injury and, through this mechanism, may contribute to adverse renal effects. 5 Conclusions 1. The renal dysfunction associated with P188-NF (commercially available, excipient-grade material) is dose dependent www.selleckchem.com/products/azd1390.html and is characterized histologically by coarse vacuolization in the proximal tubule epithelium, with no evidence of necrosis or irreversible cellular damage.   2. The renal dysfunction observed with P188-NF is associated with LMW substances present in P188-NF. These substances can be reduced via supercritical fluid extraction.   3. Compared with P188-NF, P188-P with reduced

LMW selleck substances was better find more tolerated in a remnant-kidney animal model. In this model, P188-P resulted in less pronounced vacuolization, with more rapid recovery, less effect on serum creatinine, and significantly improved tolerability. Any effects of P188-P on renal function are predicted to be fully reversible.   4. In studies investigating P188-P, the pattern of dose-dependent changes in serum creatinine previously observed with P188-NF was not observed, even with significantly higher levels of exposure.

This suggests that the benefits of P188-P observed in animal studies translate to humans.   Acknowledgments The authors wish to acknowledge the technical assistance of Abdul Al-Khalidi, Himanshu Shah, Pingping Wang, CYTH4 and Hal Lee in the preparation and characterization of purified poloxamer; Carlos Rivera-Marrero and Medea Mshvildadze for assistance with the nephrectomized rat studies; Melvin Schwartz for assistance with the histopathologic studies, and Doug McKenzie for assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. The studies were funded by CytRx Corporation, with additional support from an FDA Orphan Drug Product Grant. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References 1. Moloughney JG, Weisleder N. Poloxamer 188 (p188) as a membrane resealing reagent in biomedical applications. Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2012;6(3):200–11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 2. Maskaarinec S, Wu G, Lee K. Membrane sealing by poloxamers. Ann N.Y. Acad Sci. 1066;2005:310–20. 3. Marks JD, Pan CY, Bushell T, Cromie W, Lee RC. Amphiphilic, tri-block copolymers provide potent membrane-targeted neuroprotection. FASEB J. 2001;15(6):1107–9.PubMed 4. Manno S, Takakuwa Y, et al.

​ncbi ​nlm ​nih ​gov/​pubmed/​12618781]CrossRef 6 Bashir S,

​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​pubmed/​12618781]CrossRef 6. Bashir S, see more Rafique M, Husinsky W: Surface topography (nano-sized hillocks) and particle emission of metals, dielectrics and semiconductors during ultra-short-laser ablation: Towards a coherent understanding of relevant processes.

Appl Surf Sci 2009,255(20):8372–8376. [http://​linkinghub.​elsevier.​com/​retrieve/​pii/​S016943320900718​1]CrossRef 7. Hulin D, Combescot M, Bok J, Migus A, Vinet J, Antonetti A: Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond laser pulse. Phys Rev Lett 1984,52(22):1998–2001. [http://​link.​aps.​org/​doi/​10.​1103/​PhysRevLett.​52.​1998]CrossRef 8. Bulgakov A, Ozerov I, Marine W: Cluster emission under femtosecond laser ablation find more of silicon. Thin Solid Films 2004, 453–454:557–561. [http://​linkinghub.​elsevier.​com/​retrieve/​pii/​S004060900301741​3]CrossRef 9. Murray M, Toney Fernandez T, Richards B, Jose G, Jha A: Tm3+ doped silicon thin film and waveguides for mid-infrared sources. App Phys Lett 2012,101(14):141107. [http://​link.​aip.​org/​link/​APPLAB/​v101/​i14/​p141107/​s1&​Agg=​doi]CrossRef 10. Amoruso S, Bruzzese R, Spinelli N, Velotta R, Vitiello M, Wang X, Ausanio G, Iannotti V, Lanotte L: Generation of silicon nanoparticles via femtosecond laser ablation in vacuum. Appl Phys Lett 2004,84(22):4502. [http://​link.​aip.​org/​link/​APPLAB/​v84/​i22/​p4502/​s1&​Agg=​doi]CrossRef

11. Besner S, Degorce J, Kabashin a, Meunier M: Influence of ambient medium on femtosecond laser P-type ATPase processing of silicon. Appl Surf Sci 2005,247(1–4):163–168. [http://​linkinghub.​elsevier.​com/​retrieve/​pii/​S016943320500159​5]CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MM fabricated each sample, and all authors (MM, GJ, BR and AJ) assisted in analysing the data. MM prepared the figures and manuscript. All authors are aware of the article and consent to its publication. All authors

read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background In the last 10 years, we have witnessed a rapid growth in the development of highly selective and sensitive optical biosensors for the medical diagnosis and monitoring of diseases, drug discovery, and the detection of biological agents. Among the many advantages of optical biosensors, sensitivity and simple detection systems allow them to be applied widely. Optical sensing techniques are based on GS-9973 various sensing transduction mechanisms, fluorescence, light absorption and scattering, Raman scattering, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) [1–3]. Especially, sensing systems using localized SPR (LSPR) have received significant research attention in recent years as a result of their potential for use as highly sensitive, simple, and label-free bio/chemical binding detection devices [4–6].

≡ Sphaeria sepincola Fr [as ‘saepincola’], Observ mycol (Havni

≡ Sphaeria sepincola Fr. [as ‘saepincola’], Observ. mycol. (Havniae) 1: 181 (1815). Saccothecium is characterized this website by its subglobose, immersed to erumpent ascomata, absence of pseudoparaphyses and hyaline, muriform to phragmosporous ascospores. It has been assigned to the Dothioraceae

(Barr 1987b; Müller and von Arx 1950). Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that a strain named S. sepincola nested within Didymellaceae (Schoch et al. 2009; Plate 1). The generic type needs recollecting, redescribing and epitypifying. Setosphaeria K.J. Leonard & Suggs, Mycologia 66: 294 (1974). Type species: Setosphaeria turcica (Luttr.) K.J. Leonard & Suggs, Mycologia 66: 295 (1974). ≡ Trichometasphaeria turcica Luttr., Phytopathology 48: 282 (1958). Setosphaeria was segregated from Keissleriella on the basis of lacking a clypeus, lysigenous development of the ostiole, occurrence of setae on the perithecial wall, the absence of periphyses in the ostiole, and the hyphomycetous conidial states, and four species were included, i.e. S. prolata, S. holmii, S. pedicellata (R.R. Nelson) K.J. Leonard & Suggs and S. turcica (Leonard and Suggs 1974). Currently, nine species are included in Setosphaeria

(http://​www.​mycobank.​org, check details Jan/2011). Setosphaeria monoceras Alcorn nested within Pleosporaceae based on multigene phylogenetic analysis (Schoch et al. 2009; Plate 1). Syncarpella Theiss. & Syd., Annls mycol. 13: 631 (1915). Type species: Syncarpella tumefaciens (Ellis & Harkn.)

Theiss. & Syd., Annls mycol. 13(5/6): 633 (1915). ≡ Sphaeria tumefaciens Ellis & Harkn., J. Mycol. 2: 41 (1886). Syncarpella was introduced by Theissen and Sydow (1915) as a genus of Montagnellaceae within Dothideales. A detailed description of S. tumefaciens can be seen in Barr and Boise (1989). Syncarpella was considered closely related to Leptosphaeria, and was treated as a synonym (Clements and Shear 1931). Syncarpella is characterized by its abundant globose, ovoid to turbinate ascomata with minute papillae which are seated on a common basal stroma and which are erumpent through fissures in the host tissues (Barr and Boise 1989). The peridium is thicker at the base, pseudoparaphyses are cellular, and asci are bitunicate, Ribonucleotide reductase clavate to oblong with a furcate pedicel. selleck chemicals Ascospores are pale brown to brown, oblong to narrowly obovoid, ends obtuse, transversely septate, smooth-walled. All these characters fit Cucurbitariaceae, where Barr and Boise (1989) transferred Syncarpella. Teichospora Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23–24: 160 (1870) [1869–70]. Type species: Teichospora trabicola Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23–24: 161 (1870) [1869–70]. Teichospora was introduced by Fuckel (1870), and was typified by T. trabicola, with four more species included, i.e. T. brevirostris Fuckel, T. dura Fuckel, T. morthieri Fuckel and T. obducens (Schumach.) Fuckel. Only T. brevirostris and T. trabicola were kept in Teichospora (Barr 1987b).

Figure 5 Transcriptional analyses of different genes in S globis

Figure 5 Transcriptional analyses of different genes in S. globisporus C-1027 and R3KO mutant. The relative abundance of sgcR1, sgcR2, sgcA1, sgcC4 and sgcR3 transcripts in mycelial patches of wild type strain and R3KO Everolimus concentration mutant grown on S5 agar plates for 48 h was determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis. Data are from 2 biological samples with 2 determinations each.

The values were normalized using values obtained for hrdB mRNA and represented as the mean ± SD. The amounts of each particular transcript in wild type strain were expressed as 1. In trans complementation of R3KO mutant with sgcR1R2 The sgcR1 and sgcR2 were two adjacent genes transcribed in the same direction with a gap of only 25 bp, suggesting that they were transcriptionally coupled within an Rapamycin solubility dmso operon. Confirmation that sgcR1 and sgcR2 were controlled by sgcR3 see more came from in trans complementation of R3KO mutant with sgcR1R2 (sgcR1 and sgcR2 genes). The amplified DNA fragment

of sgcR1R2 associated with its native promoter was cloned into multi-copy pKC1139 directly or under control of ermE*p to give pKCR1R2 and pKCER1R2. These two plasmids were introduced into sgcR3 mutant after conjugal transfer from Escherichia coli. C-1027 production was partially restored when sgcR1R2 was overexpressed under the control of either the native promoter (Fig. 6c) or ermE*p (Fig. 6d). C-1027 production was not detected in the R3KO mutants in which pKC1139 and pSET152 were introduced (Fig. 6e, 6f). The expression of sgcR1R2 functionally complemented the disruption of sgcR3, together with results of the gene expression analysis, verified that sgcR3 occupied the higher level than sgcR1R2 did in the regulatory cascade for C-1027 biosynthesis in S. globisporus C-1027. Figure 6 Determination of

C-1027 production in R3KO mutant complemented with sgcR1R2. The antibacterial activities against B. subtilis of wild type strain (a), R3KO mutant (b), R3KO mutant with pKCR1R2 (c), R3KO mutant with pKCER1R2 (d), R3KO mutant with pKC1139 (e) and R3KO mutant with pSET152 (f) are shown. Binding of SgcR3 to the sgcR1R2 promoter region For CYTH4 further investigation of the function of sgcR3, its product was therefore expressed as an N-terminal His10 fusion protein in E. coli (see Methods). Subsequent SDS-PAGE analysis revealed overproduction of a clone-specific protein of the expected size of His10-SgcR3 (45 kDa). This His10-tagged SgcR3 protein was purified from the soluble fraction of cell lysate by nickel affinity chromatography and was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be about 90% pure (Fig. 7A, lane 9). Figure 7 Gel mobility-shift assays of His 10 -SgcR3 with sgcR1R2 promoter region. A, Purification of recombinant SgcR3 after overexpression as a fusion protein with an N-terminal His10-tag in E. coli BL21(DE3).

These results raise the question of whether metformin also has a

These results raise the question of whether learn more metformin also has a beneficial effect on the endometrium in women with PCOS and EC. A recent study from our laboratory has shown that a combination of metformin and oral contraceptives is capable of reverting early-stage EC into normal endometria in addition to improving insulin resistance in women with PCOS [49]. Although this is a promising result, we note that our preliminary report must be taken with caution and that further research is certainly needed before co-treatment with metformin and oral contraceptives can be recommended in clinical practice. Having said that, the promising results with metformin raise the questions

of whether metformin alone affects endometrial function in women with PCOS, how a positive effect of metformin combined with oral contraceptives could inhibit the development of atypical endometrial Stem Cells inhibitor find more hyperplasia and EC at the molecular level, how our findings

affect treatment guidelines for PCOS women with and without insulin resistance, whether metformin as a general anti-cancer drug inhibits EC development in women regardless of whether they also have PCOS, and whether metformin can prevent EC development in women without endometrial pathology but only with risk factors or in women with pre-malignant endometrial disease. Promising evidence for the use of metformin in women with EC It is still far too early to say whether there is any future for metformin as a means of preventing or treating EC in women, and there are no clinical trials assessing single metformin treatment of recurrent or metastatic

EC. However, metformin, in combination with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, seems to be effective in inhibiting EC progression in women with recurrent or metastatic EC [67] and it is also associated with improved recurrence-free survival and overall survival in postmenopausal ADAMTS5 women with diabetes mellitus and EC [34]. Possible mechanisms of metformin in the endometrium Expression and localization of OCTs and MATEs Metformin is highly hydrophilic and readily crosses the plasma membrane [68]. However, there is convincing evidence that organic cation transporters (OCTs) are actively involved in the cellular uptake of metformin and that multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) contribute to the excretion of metformin [69]. Although OCT1–3 and MATE1 and 2 have been identified in humans and rodents [69] – and although OCTs and MATEs are often co-localized in vivo [70] – the actual distributions of OCT1–3 and MATE1 and 2 have been shown to be species and tissue specific [69, 70]. The human endometrium, the specialized lining of the uterus, is composed mainly of luminal and glandular epithelial cells along with fibroblastic cells that make up the stroma [71].

The room-temperature PL spectrum of the as-grown ZnO nanoflowers

The room-temperature PL spectrum of the as-grown ZnO nanoflowers and the samples coated by the ZnO

thin films with varied thicknesses. The inset shows the PL spectra of the ZnO thin film by ALD on silicon substrate. To improve the optical properties, the as-grown sample was coated by a ZnO thin film by ALD. It was shown that ZnO films grown by ALD would have few zinc interstitials selleck compound and oxygen vacancies [17]; hence, it is a good way to improve the optical properties of the nanostructures. After a ZnO film was coated, with thickness about 15 nm (the blue squares), the deep-level emission decreased dramatically about 80%; moreover, the intensity of band-edge transition increased about 30%. The ratio α is about 1.65. This result reveals that the LXH254 very thin film on the surface of the nanoflowers can effectively enhance their optical properties without altering the morphologies. With the increasing thickness in the coating of ZnO films, the deep-level emission decreases and the band-edge transition increases, as shown in Figure 6. The deep-level emission of the sample coated with 45 nm ZnO is only 4% of that from the as-grown sample. In addition, the intensity of the band-edge transition from the sample coated with 45-nm

ZnO is 300% more than that from the as-grown sample. The ratios of the intensity of the band-edge transition to the deep-level emissions are 5.91 and 16.5 for the samples with 30-nm and 45-nm ZnO, respectively. These Selleck Trichostatin A results show

that an ALD coating Inositol oxygenase of ZnO thin films can effectively enhance the optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. However, we should know whether the PL result is due to the original ZnO nanoflower or from the ALD ZnO. Hence, we fabricated the ZnO thin film on silicon substrate by ALD using the same parameters. The thickness of this ZnO film is 45 nm, and the PL spectrum of this sample is shown as the inset of Figure 6. A strong peak around 382 nm can be observed, which is attributed to the band-edge transition. Moreover, there is nearly no deep-level emission in the sample. Hence, we can make a conclusion that the stronger peak of the band-edge transition is mostly from the ZnO thin films by ALD, while the weaker peak of the deep-level emission is from the original ZnO nanoflowers. Usually, in the ZnO nanostructures, there are many oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials, so their optical properties are very poor. Our result reveals that we could coat an epitaxial ZnO thin film by ALD on these nanostructures. This method can effectively enhance the optical properties without changing the morphologies. Another point should be noted that there is a blue shift in the band-edge transitions and a red shift in the deep-level emissions with increasing the thickness of the coating ZnO films. This reason needs further investigation. Conclusions In conclusion, we have synthesized ZnO nanoflowers by reactive vapor deposition.

1 +/−0 1% of cell lysis after 24 h of infection P

1 +/−0.1% of cell lysis after 24 h of infection. P. ABT-263 cell line mosselii MFY161 exhibited a cytotoxic activity reaching 64.5 +/−0.1% of lysis and the cytotoxic activity of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was higher with 85.6 +/−0.2% of lysis. Enumeration of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 (5 × 108 CFU.mL-1), P. mosselii MFY161 (4.8 × 108 CFU.mL-1) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 (4.9 × 108 CFU.mL-1), at the end of the infection period showed that higher cytotoxicity was not due to bacterial overgrowth. Figure 1 Cytotoxic effects of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii

MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 on Caco-2/TC7 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by LDH release assay after 24 h of infection. Results were calculated as the mean values (+/−SEM) of three independent experiments. *** P < 0.001 versus uninfected Caco-2/TC7 cells, 3 Methyladenine ∆∆∆ P < 0.001 versus P. aeruginosa PAO1, ∆∆ P < 0.01 versus P. aeruginosa PAO1, •• P < 0.01 versus P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99. Bacterial invasion assay The capacity of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and

MFY161 to enter Caco-2/TC7 cells has been investigated using the gentamicin exclusion test Linsitinib purchase (Figure 2). The results show that the two P. mosselii strains studied can have an invasive behavior with 0.5 +/−0.2 × 105 and 0.2 +/−0.2 × 105 CFU.mL-1 detected intracellularly for P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and MFY161, respectively. The invasive capacity of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was significantly higher with 1.4 +/−0.1 × 105 CFU.mL-1 that entered Caco-2/TC7 cells. Figure 2 Invasive P-type ATPase capacity of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1. 4 h after infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells with the bacteria, extracellular germs were killed by gentamicin. Cells were lysed and the intracellular bacteria were enumerated by plating onto nutrient agar medium. Results were calculated as the mean values (+/−SEM) of three independent experiments. * P < 0.05 versus

P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and P. mosselii MFY161, NS not significant between P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and P. mosselii MFY161. Quantification of IL-6, IL-8 and HBD-2 secretion The bacterial proinflammatory effect of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 was assessed by measuring IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in Caco-2/TC7 after 24 h of infection. The results show that the two strains of P. mosselii studied did not induce significant stimulation of IL-6 (Figure 3A) and IL-8 (Figure 3B) secretion in Caco-2/TC7 compared to uninfected cells. On the contrary, the infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells with P. aeruginosa PAO1 led to a major secretion of IL-8 with 92 +/−13 pg.mL-1 (Figure 3B). Figure 3 Proinflammatory effects of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 on Caco-2/TC7 cells. IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines, and HBD-2 were measured in Caco-2/TC7 cells supernatant after 24 h of infection. Results were calculated as the mean values (+/−SEM) of three independent experiments. *** P < 0.001 versus uninfected Caco-2/TC7 cells, ** P < 0.

Methods

Samples Wild chimpanzees (P t verus) in the tro

Methods

Akt inhibitor Samples Wild chimpanzees (P. t. verus) in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park (5°15′-6°07′N, 7°25′-7°54′W), Côte d’Ivoire, have been studied for behavioural research for more than 30 years [20]. As part of the project’s veterinary monitoring, blood, muscle and samples from internal organs of 28 chimpanzee carcasses were collected over the last 12 years [26]. Previous research has shown that SIV can be detected MX69 mw in these types of tissues [21]. Table 1 summarises the chimpanzees name, social group, sex, age, cause of death or sampling, and samples available for antibody testing and PCRs. Samples from 3 chimpanzees bleeding after a violent encounter with other chimpanzees were collected from the environment

and from 1 chimpanzee plasma was collected during surgical intervention [26-28; F. Leendertz, unpublished data]. Whole blood was collected from dead chimpanzees or from the environment from 31 chimpanzees; for one chimpanzee serum from fresh blood was obtained. The samples were transported on ice to the forest camp and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The samples were transported on dry ice to the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, and stored in -80°C until analyses. The work was performed under the permission of the according authorities from Côte d’Ivoire. HIV antibody testing We tested samples from 32 chimpanzees with the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score kit (Innogenetics, Gent, Belgium). The test is a line immuno-assay which is a commonly accepted and widely used confirmatory test for HIV [32]. This test buy ARS-1620 has also been commonly used to detect HIV cross-reactive antibodies in non-human primates and identified a large number of new SIV lineages, but positive samples in non-human primates should be confirmed with other more specific antibody tests and/or PCRs as false positive reactions can occur [33, 34, 41, 42]. The test is designed for use on serum or

plasma samples. We dissolved whole blood, which was preserved frozen since collection, with 0.2 ml of PBS and used the supernatant for the test, as well as plasma from one chimpanzee (blood centrifuged directly after collection under anaesthesia). In the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score kit antigens from HIV-1 and HIV-2 are coated as discrete lines on a nylon strip. There are five HIV-1 antigens: sgp120 and gp41, others which detect specific antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope, and p31, p24, and p17, which detect antibodies to HIV-1 pol and gag but may also cross react with HIV-2. The antigens gp36 and sgp105 are applied to detect antibodies to HIV-2 envelope proteins. For each antigen a coloured band develop in proportion to the HIV-antibodies present in the sample. The strength of the reaction is read in comparison to control bands on each strip; one for +/- cut off level, one for 1+ reaction and one for 3+ reaction. Two samples (Leo and Olduvai) were retested in another batch to confirm the results.

Genome-wide transcriptional analysis and other antimicrobials A n

Genome-wide transcriptional analysis and other antimicrobials A number

of studies have shown that traditional antibiotics affect bacterial gene expression and physiology [1, 2, 63, 64]. Thus, Idasanutlin some β-lactam antibiotics that can also inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis have been shown to induce the production of colanic acid in E. coli, which indicates that these might exacerbate biofilm formation [65]. Investigation of the E. coli transcription profile in response to bactericidal SAHA solubility dmso concentrations of ampicillin also showed induction of the colanic acid biosynthetic pathway, as well as rcsA, the transcriptional activator of colanic acid synthesis and other stress responses [66]. However, the authors did not detect induction of the additional exopolysaccharide

operon yjbEFGH, distinct from colanic acid. In Staphylococcus aureus, subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactams have been shown to up-regulate some virulence genes [67]. Moreover, the aminoglycoside tobramycin has been shown to induce biofilm formation in E. coli and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to alterations in the levels of c-di-GMP [68]. Biofilm formation was also induced following exposure of P. aeruginosa to subinhibitory concentrations selleck chemical of tetracycline and norfloxacin [69]. Further to this, a number of studies have investigated the effects of antibiotics on the expression of the SOS regulon genes. Thus, the β-lactam antibiotic, ceftazidime, which is an inhibitor of a protein involved in cell wall biosynthesis, PBP3, has been shown to induce transcription of the dinB gene, which encodes the error-prone DNA polymerase Pol IV [70]. Subsequently, subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, norfloxacin and kanamycin were shown to induce mutagenesis due to antibiotic-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species, which results in SOS-induced mutagenesis that might lead to multidrug resistance Protirelin [71]. An additional study showed that a number of antibiotics can promote

an increase in mutation frequency; namely, ampicillin, ceftazidime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline [72]. With the exception of imipenem, fosfomycin and tetracycline, the antibiotics tested were shown to induce recA expression, while inactivation of recA abolished the mutagenic effects. In the present study, subinhibitory concentrations of colicin M did not induce the expression of dinB or recA. To further confirm that colicin M does not induce the SOS response, induction of the sulA gene following colicin M treatment was investigated. SOS-regulated SulA inhibits cell division by binding to FtsZ, which is required for septum formation. For this purpose, expression of the chromosomal sulA-lacZ fusion was studied in the ENZ1257 strain [73] without and with colicin M: no induction was detected (data not shown).

CrossRefPubMed 11 Sargent F: Constructing the wonders of the bac

CrossRefPubMed 11. Sargent F: Constructing the wonders of the bacterial world: biosynthesis of complex enzymes. Microbiology

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