A mutant lacking the HI loop was unable to assemble
particles, while a substitution mutant (10 glycine residues) assembled particles but was unable to package viral genomes. Substitution mutants carrying corresponding regions from AAV1, AAV4, AAV5, and AAV8 yielded (i) particles with titers and infectivity identical to those of AAV2 (AAV2 HI1 and HI8), (ii) particles with a decreased selleck chemical virus titer (1 log) but normal infectivity (HI4), and (iii) particles that synthesized VPs but were unable to assemble into intact capsids (HI5). AAV5 HI is shorter than all other HI loops by one amino acid. Replacing the missing residue (threonine) in AAV2 HI5 resulted in a moderate particle assembly rescue. In addition, we replaced the HI loop with peptides varying in length and amino acid sequence. This region tolerated seven-amino-acid peptide substitutions unless they spanned a conserved phenylalanine at amino acid position 661. Mutation of this highly conserved phenylalanine to a glycine resulted in a modest decrease in virus titer but a substantial decrease (1 log order)
in infectivity. Subsequently, confocal studies revealed that AAV2 F661G is incapable of efficiently completing a key step in the infectious pathway nuclear entry, hinting at a possible perturbation of VP1 phospholipase activity. Molecular modeling studies with the F661G mutant suggest that disruption of interactions between F661 and an underlying P373 residue in the EF loop of the neighboring subunit CFTRinh-172 supplier might adversely affect incorporation of the VP1 subunit at the fivefold axis. Western blot analysis confirmed inefficient incorporation of VP1, as well as a proteolytically processed VP1 subunit that could account for the markedly reduced infectivity. In summary, our studies Pitavastatin nmr show that the HI loop, while flexible in amino acid sequence, is critical for AAV capsid assembly, proper VP1 subunit incorporation, and
viral genome packaging, all of which implies a potential role for this unique surface domain in viral infectivity.”
“OBJECTIVE: Meticulous sealing of opened air cells in the petrous bone is necessary for the prevention of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae after vestibular schwannoma surgery. We performed a retrospective analysis to determine whether muscle or fat tissue is superior for this purpose.
METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2006, 420 patients underwent retrosigmoidal microsurgical removal by a standardized procedure. The opened air cells at the inner auditory canal and the mastoid bone were sealed with muscle in 283 patients and with fat tissue in 137 patients. Analysis was performed regarding the incidence of postoperative CSF fistulae and correlation with the patient’s sex and tumor grade.