A few years later, an epidemic of neurocysticercosis-related epilepsy was documented in that population. On the other hand, the option that another food, that is, vegetables or fruits, infected with taenia eggs travel from one country to another
to infect patients has not been previously demonstrated and seems to be highly unlikely. Cysticercosis must be primarily GSK1120212 supplier considered as a disease transmitted from person to person, that is, from a taenia carrier. Commenting on the other point raised by Joob and Wiwanitkit, what I meant by “reactivation of an infection that has previously been controlled by the host immune system” was that it may happen that the immune system of a given person infected Roxadustat chemical structure abroad, handled the infection without causing clinical manifestations. Then, several years later, the calcification that resulted from that successfully handled infection may become symptomatic when parasitic antigens (trapped within the calcified lesion) are liberated to the brain parenchyma and get exposed to the host immune system. The resulting inflammatory response is responsible for the occurrence of seizures
(symptoms) and changes in neuroimaging studies that may resemble a fresh infection. Incorrect interpretation of imaging findings may lead the attending physician to believe that the patient has a cysticerci in the acute encephalitic phase (active neurocysticercosis).
“Background. Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the obligatory religious duties of Islam. The travel clinic of the Public Health Service (PHS) Amsterdam administers vaccinations, including the required meningitis ACYW135 vaccine, and provides travelers with individual recommendations for all their travels. Methods. We extracted all data from the PHS database pertaining to Muslims who visited the clinic before travel to Mecca. From 2001 to 2009, Baricitinib the characteristics are described and trends are analyzed retrospectively. Acceptance of dTP vaccine was used as a proxy for acceptance of recommended vaccinations. For the years 2007 to 2009, predictive factors for the acceptance of advised vaccinations are analyzed. Results. From 2001 to 2009, significantly more women and people older than 50 years of age traveled to Mecca. Since 2007, only 527 of 2,156 (24%) of those who were advised to take vaccines accepted the recommendation. Independent factors for acceptance were being female, of younger age, and being less healthy. Specifically, Mecca travelers with heart disorders and with liver or gastrointestinal disorders accepted recommended vaccinations more often than those without. Conclusions. Only a quarter of Mecca travelers who visit the travel clinic for their mandatory meningitis vaccination also take other, recommended, vaccinations.