Sediment traps were lowered to the depth of the screened interval of each well and retrieved after 98 to 137 days of incubation, allowing active microbial populations to colonize the initially-sterile solids . Upon retrieval, sediment samples were immediately MK5108 concentration placed into separate sterile Whirl-Pak® bags and stored in coolers filled
with dry ice. All microbiological samples (filters and sediments) were transported to the laboratory within four hours whereupon they were transferred to a -80°C freezer and stored awaiting further analysis. Aqueous concentrations of methane and hydrogen in groundwater were determined using passive Givinostat concentration diffusion sampling . In situ gas samplers were equilibrated in an individual well for at least one week and then retrieved. Triplicate samples of dissolved gases were immediately injected into stoppered, N2-purged serum bottles for storage. The concentrations of major anions (F–, Cl–, Br–, NO3 –, PO4 3–, SO4 2–) in groundwater samples were measured using a Metrohm Advanced ion chromatograph with a detection limit of 10 μM (Metrohm USA, Houston, TX). DOC analyses were performed at the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center using a Shimadzu TOC-VCPN carbon analyzer with a detection limit of 0.4 mg kg–1. Methane and DIC
concentrations were measured using an SRI 8610 gas chromatograph (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA) coupled to a selleckchem thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and a flame ionization detector
(FID). TCD measurements were used to determine DIC and dissolved methane concentrations greater than >100 μM, while the FID was used to measure methane <100 μM. Hydrogen concentrations were determined using the same GC equipped with a reducing gas detector (RGD). The RGD detector produced reliable concentration measurements down to 0.5 nM. Gas phase concentrations of CO2, methane and hydrogen within the passive diffusion samplers were converted to aqueous phase concentrations using the temperature-corrected Ostwald coefficient , taking into account the total dissolved gas pressure in the system as measured using a Hydrolab MiniSonde 4a® (Hach Hydromet, Loveland, CO). Energy available for microbial respiration The Suplatast tosilate thermodynamic energy available (∆G A) to particular functional groups of microbes through respiration was calculated according to the equation: (1) Where ∆G° T is the standard state free energy change at temperature T (K), R is the universal gas constant, and y i , m i , and v i are the activity coefficients, molal concentrations, and reaction coefficients of the species involved in the redox reaction. The ∆G A for a particular functional group of microbes is equal to the amount of free energy released by that group’s respiratory reaction (∆G r).