(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc J Appl Polym Sci 119: 32

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 325-329, 2011″
“Introduction and objectives. This article reports the findings of the 2009 Spanish national Catheter Ablation Registry.

Methods. Data were collected in two ways: retrospectively using a standard questionnaire and prospectively from a central database. Each center chose its own preferred method of data collection.

Results. Data were collected from 59 centers. The total number of ablation procedures carried out was 8546, giving a mean of 145 101 procedures per center. The three most frequently treated conditions were atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (n=2341; 27%), typical atrial flutter (n=1859; 21.7%) and accessory pathways (n=1758; 20.5%). The fourth most common condition was atrial fibrillation (n=1188; ARN-509 ic50 14%), the number of which has grown by 44% since

the 2008 registry. The overall success rate was 93%, major complications occurred in 1.9%, and the mortality rate was 0.046%.

Conclusions. Data from the 2009 registry show that the number of ablations carried out continued to increase and exceeded 8000 for the first time. In addition, they show, in general, a higher success rate and a lower number of complications. Cavotricuspid isthmus ablation, as treatment for typical atrial flutter, continued to be the second most common procedure. There was a substantial increase in the number of catheter ablations performed for atrial fibrillation compared

with previous years.”
“Purpose: To date, PXD101 ic50 simultaneously performed investigations on the differential radiosensitivity of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell line as well as B and T lymphocytes of human peripheral blood are not available. Thus the aim of the present study was to fill this gap by directly comparing the corresponding dose-response relationships of Selumetinib in vivo dicentrics obtained in blood samples from the same donor.

Material and methods: Cell samples of whole blood or low passage cells of an EBV-transformed B cell line were irradiated by 120 W X-rays in chambers tightly embedded in a polymethylmethacrylate phantom. Chromosome analysis was performed in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T lymphocytes, in pokeweed mitogen-stimulated B lymphocytes and in the EBV-transformed B cell line.

Results: Based on dose-response relationships of dicentrics, different radiosensitivity values relative to T lymphocytes were found from 1.53-1.46 for the EBV-transformed cell line, from 0.76-0.80 for resting B lymphocytes and from 2.36-2.20 for cycling B lymphocytes within the dose range from 0.25-4 Gy.

Conclusions: Owing to these different radiosensitivity values, care has to be taken when dose-response relationships of dicentrics determined in B cell lines are used in biological dosimetry to estimate any dose levels for radiation protection purposes.

“Casearia esculenta root (Roxb ) is widely used in traditi

“Casearia esculenta root (Roxb.) is widely used in traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes in India. An active compound, 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol (3-HMX), has been isolated, and its optimum dose has been determined in a short duration study and patented. In addition, the long-term SRT2104 cell line effect

of 3-HMX in type 2 diabetic rats on antihyperglycemic, antioxidants, antihyperlipidemic, and protein metabolism and kidney marker enzymes was investigated, and its effect was shown previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-HMX on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Animals were divided into five groups viz., control group, 3-HMX (40 mg/kg of body weight) treated group, diabetic group, diabetic + 3-HMX (40 mg/kg of body weight), and diabetic + glibenclamide (600 mu g/kg of body weight). 3-HMX was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg of YH25448 research buy body weight for 45 days. The study shows significant increases in the level of sialic acid except kidney and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine, and fucose in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats, and the treatment with 3-HMX and glibenclamide showed reversal of these

parameters toward normalcy. Thus, the study indicates that 3-HMX possesses a significant beneficial effect on glycoprotein components.”
“Cadherins are cell adhesion molecules with multiple morphogenic functions in brain development, for example, in neuroblast migration and aggregation, axon navigation, neural circuit formation, and synaptogenesis. More than 100 members of the cadherin superfamily are expressed in the developing and mature brain. Most of the cadherins investigated, in particular classic cadherins and delta-protocadherins, are expressed in the cerebellum. For several cadherin subtypes, expression begins at early embryonic stages

and persists until mature stages of cerebellar development. At intermediate stages, distinct Purkinje cell clusters exhibit unique rostrocaudal and mediolateral expression profiles for each cadherin. In the chicken, mouse, and other species, the Purkinje cell clusters are separated by intervening raphes of migrating Selleck FK228 granule cells. This pattern of Purkinje cell clusters/raphes is, at least in part, continuous with the parasagittal striping pattern that is apparent in the mature cerebellar cortex, for example, for zebrin II/aldolase C. Moreover, subregions of the deep cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nuclei and the olivary complex also express cadherins differentially. Neuroanatomical evidence suggests that the nuclear subregions and cortical domains that express the same cadherin subtype are connected to each other, to form neural subcircuits of the cerebellar system. Cadherins thus provide a molecular code that specifies not only embryonic structures but also functional cerebellar compartmentalization.

Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures

Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pp2.html used were the differences between pretreatment and posttreatment pure-tone audiometry averages (PTAs) and speech discrimination scores (SDSs). Successful treatment was defined as a greater than 10 dB improvement in PTA and 15% in SDS. The final assessment of hearing was performed 3 months after completion of treatment.


Significant hearing recovery was observed in 31 (67.39%) of 46 cases, and in 24 (52.17%) of 46 control patients. Patients receiving combination therapy had a median improvement in PTA of 23.12 dB and a median increase in SDS of 32%. In the control group, the median hearing gain was 16.87 dB and 18%, respectively. The differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant (p = 0.10 and p = 0.13). However, after performing a post hoc analysis by excluding individuals with profound hearing loss (PTA, > 90 dB), the combined treatment Duvelisib mouse group showed significant improvement compared

with the control group (p = 0.04). No serious complications or adverse reactions were reported.

Conclusion: The addition of intratympanic steroids to the conventional systemic steroid therapy may provide a safe and potentially effective therapeutic option in patients with mild-to-severe ISSNHL.”
“Purpose of review

Cell transplantation to restore liver function as an alternative to whole liver transplantation has thus far not been successful in humans.

Recent findings

Adult mature hepatocytes and various populations of liver progenitors and stem cells are being studied for their regenerative capabilities. Hepatocyte transplantation to treat metabolic deficiencies has shown promising early improvement in liver function; however, long-term success has not been

achieved. Liver progenitor cells can now be identified and were shown to be capable to differentiate into a hepatocyte-like phenotype. Despite evidence of mesenchymal stem cell fusion in animal models of BKM120 liver regeneration, encouraging results were seen in a small group of patients receiving autologous transplantation of CD133(+) mesenchymal stem cells to repopulate the liver after extensive hepatectomy for liver masses. Ethical issues, availability, potential rejection and limited understanding of the totipotent capabilities of embryonic stem cells are the limitations that prevent their use for restoration of liver function. The effectiveness of embryonic stem cells to support liver function has been proven with their application in the bioartificial liver model in rodents.


There is ongoing research to restore liver function in cell biology, animal models and clinical trials using mature hepatocytes, liver progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells.”
“Purpose of reviewAbundant evidence has documented inverse associations of physical activity and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

“Background: Treatment refusal and abandonment are common

“Background: Treatment refusal and abandonment are common causes of treatment failure in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in many developing countries. In most studies reasons for abandonment were based on the opinion of health-care providers (HCP), very few studies have focused on the parental point-of-view. Aims of the study Proteasome structure were to analyze the parents’ reasons of abandonment and to ascertain

the fate of children who abandoned treatment in a pediatric oncology centre in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Methods: We conducted home-visits to interview families of ALL patients, diagnosed between January 2004 and August 2007, who refused or abandoned treatment.

Results: From January 2004 to August 2007, 159 patients were diagnosed with ALL of which

40 children (25%) refused or abandoned therapy. Thirty-seven (93%) of these children were home-visited. Reasons for abandonment were complex. Most parents mentioned several reasons. Financial and transportation difficulties were not the only, or even the main reasons, for abandonment. Belief of All incurability, experience of severe side effects and dissatisfaction with HCP were also important considerations. Most patients (64%) abandoned treatment during the diagnostic-evaluation or remission-induction phase. Of the Compound C 37 patients who refused or abandoned treatment, 26 (70%) children died, and 11 (30%) children were still alive, 2 of them more than 2 years after abandonment.

Conclusions: Reducing treatment abandonment of childhood ALL in developing countries requires not only financial and transportation support, but also parental education, counseling and psychosocial support during therapy, improvement of quality-of-care and adequate management of side effects. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Purpose of review

It is the current opinion that pathogens, such as viruses, are contributing to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in susceptible individuals. This opinion is based on epidemiological associations, direct isolation of pathogens from the islets of Langerhans, as well as a large amount of data from

various experimental animal models. Human enteroviruses have dominated the literature associated with the etiology of T1D. However, virus infections have also been reported to protect from autoimmune disorders.

Recent PCI-32765 molecular weight findings

Here we review the evidence for virus infections to be involved in the pathogenesis of T1D and discuss potential mechanisms of how such infections could accelerate the destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. In addition, we will review evidence from epidemiologic and experimental animal studies showing that virus infections could also have protective properties.


Virus infections play an important role in the pathogenesis of T1D by inducing or accelerating the autodestructive process, but also by protecting from autoimmunity.

Exploratory factor analysis

Exploratory factor analysis find more was used for further model development.

Results were cross-validated splitting the total sample randomly and using the cross-validation index. Results: A model with four latent variables

(Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance) best represented the HLOC construct (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 9.55; RMSEA = 0.066; CFI = 0.931; SRMR = 0.075; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 8.65; RMSEA = 0.062; CFI = 0.940; SRMR = 0.071; chi-square difference test: p < 0.001). After excluding one item, the superiority of the four-over the three-dimensional HLOC construct became very obvious (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 7.74; RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.950; SRMR = 0.079; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 5.75; RMSEA = 0.049; CFI = 0.965; SRMR = 0.065; chi-square difference test: p < 0.001). Results were confirmed by cross-validation. Results based

on our large community sample indicated that western general populations separate health-related control-beliefs concerning formal and informal assistance.

Conclusions: Future non-clinical HLOC studies in western cultures should consider four dimensions of HLOC: Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance. However, the standardised German instrument needs modification. Therefore, selleck confirmation Nutlin-3 inhibitor of our results may be useful. Future research should compare HLOC structure between clinical and non-clinical samples as well as cross-culturally.”
“Purpose of review

Frequent media reports of sudden cardiac arrest or death (SCA/SCD) keep alive a debate as to how best to prevent these tragedies. Several new studies in the past 2 years serve as an impetus to reframe the debate into a reasonable discussion that seeks to obtain more evidence wherever needed and to develop a consensus wherever possible.

Recent findings

Since the report from Italy of the 89% decrease in SCD over 25

years of an ECG-based cardiovascular screening program, proponents and opponents of ECG screening have been busily debating. Multiple studies on screening have shown that adding an ECG to a history and physical examination is more sensitive than history and physical examination alone in identifying those potentially at risk. A major gap exists regarding managing these new ‘patients’ as their clinical course is not known. Reports, without data, have warned of unintended or harmful consequences of ECG screening. Economic models have shown cost-effectiveness of ECG screening to be variable.


Studies suggest that adding an ECG to the screening is a very reasonable effort that will identify at-risk youth and prevent SCD, but more information is needed. If data support the addition of an ECG, efforts should be made to make this opportunity available.

Results: There was a significant correlation between FeNO concent

Results: There was a significant correlation between FeNO concentrations measured with the two devices (r = 0.876, P < 0.001). A BlandAltman plot showed a high degree of agreement between the two devices: the mean inter-device difference was 3.3 parts per billion (ppb), and the 95% limits of agreement were -7.0 and 13.6 ppb. In addition, the mean relative difference was 14.5%, with the 95% limits of agreement being -33.7 and 62.7%. The mean value (+/- standard error of the mean) for FeNO as measured with the NIOX MINO (18.8 +/- 0.9 ppb) was significantly lower than that measured with the NOA280i (22.1

+/- 1.2 ppb, P < 0.001). Napabucasin cell line Conclusions: There was a significant correlation, but only moderate agreement, between FeNO values measured with the NIOX MINO and those measured with the NOA280i, with the NIOX MINO values being significantly lower than the NOA280i values. Significant differences in FeNO values obtained with these two NO analyzers should be considered when interpreting the results of FeNO measurements.”
“Nanocapsule suspensions containing coenzyme Q10 were prepared by interfacial deposition. The nanocapsules showed characteristics compatible with dermal application: slightly

acid pH, drug content close to 100%, particle size between 213 and 248 nm with low polydispersity and negative zeta potential. Three cosmetic formulations high throughput screening for skin application were developed, one with the free-coenzyme Q10, a second with a suspension of coenzyme Q10-loaded nanocapsules and a third containing dried coenzyme Q10-loaded nanocapsules. The dried nanocapsules were obtained by spray-drying of the suspension. No significant differences in the diameters CX-6258 cost of the particles after their incorporation in the semi-solid formulations were observed in comparison with those of nanocapsules in the aqueous suspension. The rheological characterization showed that the formulations containing coenzyme Q10-loaded nanocapsules had a pseudoplastic flow, while the formulation

containing free-coenzyme Q10 had a yield-pseudoplastic flow. The semi-solid formulations containing coenzyme Q10-loaded nanocapsules suspension or powder of nanocapsules of coenzyme Q10 redispersed in water are promising cosmetic formulations for topical application.”
“Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS).

Results: A total of

Results: A total of Selleck URMC-099 239 abstracts were screened and 15 studies were identified reporting on 116 procedures. The surgical methods of stone management employed were stone extraction with basket only (n = 55, 47%), laser fragmentation (n = 27, 23%; holmium, n = 20, pulse dye, n = 7), impact lithotripsy (n = 21, 18%), ureteroscopic lithotripsy (n = 6, 5%) and a combination of methods (n = 6, 5%). A post-operative stent was inserted in 64 of 116

procedures (55%). Complete stone clearance was seen in 100 of the 116 procedures (86%). There were 2 major complications (1 ureteral perforation and 1 case of premature uterine contraction) and 7 minor complications (5 urinary tract infections and 2 cases of post-operative pain). Selleck AZD2014 Conclusion: This review suggests that stone clearance using ureteroscopy is a relatively safe option in pregnancy with a high success rate. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In this paper, we show that when nanoparticles of Fe3O4 are coated with gold there is a distinct enhancement of magnetization by a factor of six. This increase of magnetization has been attributed to large orbital magnetic moment formation at the magnetic particle/Au (core/shell) interface. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the

enhanced magnetism observed in Fe3O4-Au (core-shell) nanoparticles is an interfacial effect. The origin of magnetism in Au as an interfacial phenomenon is supported by the observation of positive magnetization in citrate coated gold nanoparticles. In citrate coated gold nanoparticles, we observe a crossover from positive magnetization value to negative magnetization value upon increasing magnetic field indicating cancellation of interfacial magnetization by the diamagnetic contribution from the bulk. We propose a theoretical formalism which semi-quantitatively explains our experimental results and supports the origin of magnetization in Au Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor as an interfacial effect. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3596760]“
“Introduction: To investigate the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in children younger than 24 months old with hemodynamically significant congenital heart diseases. Primary aim: incidence

of hospital admission due to ARI. Secondary aims: risk factors, etiologic agents, clinical outcomes, and usefulness of preventive measures.

Patients and Methods: Prospective, multicenter, epidemiologic study conducted in 57 Spanish hospitals covering four 7-month seasons (2004-2008).

Results: A total of 2613 patients were eligible for the study. Three hundred fifty-four patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval: 12.3-14.9) required a total of 453 hospital admissions. Clinical diagnoses: bronchiolitis (54.1%), upper respiratory tract infection (21%), pneumonia (19.9%), and others (17.4%). Median length of hospital stay: 7.0 days. No etiologic agent was identified in two-thirds of the patients. In the remaining patients either a single agent (26.

In the 42 T1 lesions greater than 1 cm and the 20 T2 lesions, we

In the 42 T1 lesions greater than 1 cm and the 20 T2 lesions, we used the staircase technique. In 2 T2 cases, the carcinoma was located on the labial commissure and was treated with the

Fries technique. For the 8 T3 cases, we used the Bernard-Freeman-Fries technique. In 28 patients, a lip shave was performed and tumor was this website removed. The 7 patients who were N+ at diagnosis underwent modified radical neck dissection and radiotherapy.

Results: Ten patients died during the follow-up period of 11 to 65 months: 8 of unrelated causes and 2 of new upper aerodigestive tract carcinoma. None of the patients died of their lip cancer.

Conclusions: Lip cancer is a frequent disease of the oral cavity. Although general agreement has been reached concerning stage T and N+ surgical treatment, unresolved questions remain with regard to NO treatment. We present our experience and suggestions. (C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons”
“The assignment of microscopic Raman spectra on powdered samples of pre-perovskite PbTiO3 (space group I4/m) has been established according to the correspondence between the experimental selleck compound and theoretical frequency and relative intensity data. We find no giant longitudinal-optical (LO) and transverse-optical (TO) splittings in pre-perovskite PbTiO3. In contrast to conventional perovskite, the largest pre-perovskite LO-TO splitting comes from its stiffest A(u) mode instead of from its

softest mode. The pre-perovskite’s Born effective charges, dielectric tensors, and infrared frequencies are also calculated to determine its lattice dynamics and optical properties, and compared with the conventional perovskite PbTiO3. The results provide invaluable information for use in further research on PbTiO3 phase transition. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3632070]“
“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish the midterm prognosis of periapical surgery by use of the ultrasound technique, comparing

a scale obtained by image analysis with the success rates according to other prognostic scales.

Materials and Methods: A clinical follow-up study Autophagy inhibitor was performed between September 2004 and September 2005. Thirty-six patients with chronic periapical lesions were treated with periapical surgery via the ultrasound technique and root-end filling with silver amalgam. Evolution was analyzed by use of the different currently accepted assessment scales at 6 and 12 months after intervention with a scale obtained by radiographic image analysis.

Results: Thirty patients with a mean age of 40.5 years were studied. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. Thirty-seven lesions were analyzed. A positive correlation at 6 months was observed between the radiographic scale proposed in this study and the scales of Rud and Andreasen and von Arx et al. At 12 months, the proposed radiographic scale only correlated with the functional tooth concept established by Friedman.

This mini review will focus on recent advancements in the field m

This mini review will focus on recent advancements in the field made by challenging mutant and transgenic rodent models for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (NRG1) with particular environmental factors. It will outline results obtained from mouse and rat models for various Nrg1

isoforms/isoform types (e.g., transmembrane domain Nrg1, Type II Nrg1), which have been exposed to different forms of stress (acute versus chronic, restraint versus social) and housing conditions (standard laboratory versus minimally enriched housing). These studies suggest Nrg1 as a prime candidate for GxE see more interactions in schizophrenia rodent models and that the use of rodent models will enable a better understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying mechanisms.”
“Content-specific sub-systems of visual working memory (VWM) have been explored click here in many neuroimaging

studies with inconsistent findings and procedures across experiments. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a change detection task using a high number of trials and matched stimulus displays across object and location change (what vs. where) conditions. Furthermore, individual task periods were studied independently across conditions to identify differences corresponding to each task period. Importantly, this combination of task controls has not previously been described in the fMRI literature. Composite results revealed differential frontoparietal activation during each task period. A separation of object and location conditions yielded a distributed system C59 Wnt manufacturer of dorsal and ventral streams during the encoding of information corresponding to bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and lingual gyrus activation, respectively. Differential activity was also shown during the maintenance of information in middle frontal structures bilaterally for objects and the right IPL and left insula for locations.

Together, these results reflect a domain-specific dissociation spanning several cortices and task periods. Furthermore, differential activations suggest a general caudal-rostral separation corresponding to object and location memory, respectively.”
“BACKGROUND: Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is an unusual cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with ARDS caused by miliary TB admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

DESIGN: A total of 67 patients were enrolled during the period 1999-2008.

RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 56 years (range 17-81), 19 (28.4%) were aged >71 years, and 38 (56.7%) were male. All-cause mortality in the ICU and hospital were respectively 58.2% and 61.2%. Of the total number of enrolled patients, 49 (73.1%) were prescribed anti-tuberculosis medication within 3 days of hospital admission. On the day of ARDS diagnosis (10.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 7.4 +/- 3.5, P = 0.

Human studies, which focused on neuronal systems that store and c

Human studies, which focused on neuronal systems that store and control drug-conditioned memories, have found cerebellar activations during the retrieval of drug-associated cue memory. However, at the pre-clinical level,

almost no attention has been paid to a possible role of the cerebellum in drug-related memories. In the present study, we ought to fill this gap by aiming to investigate the pattern of neuronal activation (as revealed by cFos expression) in different regions of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of mice trained to develop conditioned preference for an olfactory stimulus (CS+) paired with cocaine. Our results indicate that CS+ preference was directly associated with cFos expression in cells at the apical region of the granule cell layer of the cerebellar vermis; this relationship being more prominent in some specific lobules. Conversely, cFos+ immunostaining in other cerebellar regions seems to be unrelated to CS+ preference but Selleckchem 3-deazaneplanocin A to other aspects of the conditioning procedure. At the prefrontal cortex, cFos expression seemed to be related to cocaine administration rather than to its ability to establish conditioned preference. The present results suggest that as it has been observed in some clinical studies, the cerebellum

might be an important and largely overlooked part of the neural circuits involved in generating, maintaining and/or retrieving drug memories.”
“Objective: The study aimed to test the potential role GSK1838705A inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and IGF-II as biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

Methods and results: IGF-I and II levels were analysed in 115 patients with screening diagnosed AAA kept under annual surveillance for 10 years.

Serum IGF-I correlated positively with AAA size and growth rate (r = 0.23, P = 0.016 and r = 0.27, P = 0.004), persisting after adjustment for potential confounders.

Serum IGF-I level predicted cases needing later surgery (AOC: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.73).

Conclusions: In this prospective, long-term study, baseline serum IGF-I correlated positively with AAA size and growth rate and predicted future need for preventive surgery.

(C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO) P505-15 due to mitotic diseases is a serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the follow-up data and demographics of patients with SVCO admitted to the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, over a 14-year period.

The prospectively entered clinical data of patients with SVCO in Queen Mary Hospital from October 1997 to September 2011 were retrospectively analysed. All patient records were electronically and manually searched. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves analysis. The Mantel-Cox log-rank test was used to test for statistically significant differences.