The CORE-OM is a 34-item instrument monitoring clinical outcomes

The CORE-OM is a 34-item instrument monitoring clinical outcomes of people with common mental health problems. The CORE-OM is characterised by high correlation across its domains. Rasch analysis was used to reduce the number of items and response levels in order to produce a unidimensional measure and to generate a credible set of health states corresponding to different levels of symptom severity using the Rasch item

threshold map.

The proposed methodology resulted in the development of CORE-6D, a 2-dimensional health state descriptive system consisting ISRIB mouse of a unidimensional 5-item emotional component (derived from Rasch analysis) and a physical symptom item. Inspection of the Rasch item threshold map of the emotional component helped identify a set of 11 plausible health states, which, combined with 3 physical symptom item levels, form 33 plausible health states that can be used for the valuation of the instrument, resulting in the development of a preference-based selleck chemicals llc index.

This is a useful new approach to develop preference-based measures from existing instruments with high correlations across domains. The CORE-6D preference-based index will enable calculation of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in people with common mental health problems.”
“Study Design. Clinical case series.


To present a new innovative treatment option for cysts of the terminal ventricle.

Summary ABT-263 of Background Data. Invasive surgery including laminectomy and cyst fenestration has been the sole reported method of treatment for this rare pathology.

Methods. Four cases of symptomatic cyst of the terminal ventricle of the spinal cord were treated by percutaneous aspiration using real-time guidance with

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optically-tracking navigation.

Results. Three patients were treated successfully by this percutaneous method, and for 1 patient the treatment was converted to conventional surgery after a single unsuccessful trial of percutaneous puncture. All patients were relieved of their symptoms without any complication. Follow-up MRI revealed continued shrinkage of the cysts after both surgery and MRI-guided percutaneous fenestration.

Conclusion. MRI-navigated percutaneous aspiration can be a minimally-invasive treatment option for symptomatic cysts of the terminal ventricle, and therefore, can be indicated before more invasive surgery might be scheduled.”
“Background In this work two immobilized preparations of lipase (EC B from Candida antarctica (CALB) were compared as biocatalysts in the synthesis of ethyl butyrate, a short-chain esters with fruity notes. Commercial Novozym 435 and CALB immobilized on styrene-divinylbenzene beads (MCI-CALB) were tested for esterification reactions.

Interestingly, the Ishikawa minus cell line (lacking estrogen rec

Interestingly, the Ishikawa minus cell line (lacking estrogen receptor expression) demonstrated no to minimal expression of the betaC subunit as observed with immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, suggesting a possible hormone- dependency of this subunit in human endometrial cancer cells. Moreover, because the Ishikawa cell line minus is thought to be a more malignant endometrial cell line than its estrogen receptor positive counterpart, inhibin-betaC subunit might be substantially involved in the pathogenesis and malignant transformation in human endometrium.”
“To investigate the manipulation of magnetic particles diluted in magnetic fluid, we fabricated a spin valve sensor

consisting of sensing and SYN-117 in vitro reference sensors and a current-carrying wire near the sensing sensor as well as a microfluidic channel. We designed the microfluidic channel to operate only on the top surface of the sensing sensor. Although a 40 mu V output signal was achieved when the magnetic fluid including a 10(6) bead/ml concentration passed through the channel, the signal disappeared when we switched on the line current. Such a result indicated that the magnetic force, induced by the gradient near the current-carrying wire, caused magnetic particles to exit from the top surface of the sensing sensor.

In particular, the output signal recovered to a value of 40 mu V when the current was switched off. In addition, the output signal was Small molecule library proportional to the concentration of magnetic fluid. The results in this study indicated that magnetic pumping employing a current-carrying wire near sensors can be effectively used to manipulate magnetic particles on sensor surfaces, allowing use of spin-valve sensors after a detection of magnetic particle. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562870]“
“Waste crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) was partially decrosslinked to obtain a thermoplastic recycled material through solid-state mechanochemical milling with pan-mill equipment at ambient temperature. The KPT-8602 solubility dmso gel fraction and size exclusion chromatography measurements showed that the gel content

of XLPE decreased remarkably with increasing cycles of mechanochemical milling, whereas the molecular weight of the sol fraction was not significantly reduced; this indicated the realization of partial decrosslinking during mechanochemical milling. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the melting temperature of decrosslinked polyethylene increased by 3.5 degrees C because the bigger crystallites size resulting from the higher mobility of the chain segment. The improved thermoplastic characteristic of XLPE after mechanochemical milling were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and rheological measurement. The mechanical properties of recycled XLPE also achieved significant improvement after mechanochemical milling.

Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were ob

Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained, and interviews were conducted using the SF-36 and OHIP-49. To evaluate the normality of the variables, we used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U-Test were used to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics

Sotrastaurin ic50 of individuals with BMS and controls Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare SF-36 and OHIP-49 between BMS patients and controls. The significance level was set at 0.05. To compare the dimensions of the SF-36 and OHIP-49 between BMS patients and controls, we considered Bonferroni correction. So for comparison of the dimensions, Ion Channel Ligand Library molecular weight the significance level was set at 0.00625 for SF-36 and at 0.00714 for OHIP-49.

Results: The clinical and demographic data were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for patients with BMS (P < 0.00625). OHIP-49 scores were higher for individuals with BMS (P < 0.00714).

Conclusions: BMS has a negative impact on the health-related quality of life of individuals, as can be shown by instruments such as the SF-36 and OHIP-49. So, the evaluation of quality of life might be useful for more information about the nature and severity of BMS, to evaluate the effects of treatment protocols, in order to improve their outcomes

by means a humanized clinical practice.”
“The sunflower-like silica core-polypyrrole (PPy) shell nanocomposites were prepared by using silica sulfuric acid as templates. The silica sulfuric acid was obtained by treating directly the silica nanoparticles with chlorosulfonic acid. The Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil sulfonic groups (-SO(3)H) on the surface of silica sulfuric acid not only offered the active sites for formation of polypyrrole particles but also acted as dopant agents in PPy. The nanostructures of sunflower-like silica/PPy nanocomposites and hollow PPy capsules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy

(TEM). The molecular structure and content of PPy were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The highest conductivity of nanocomposites is 2.4 S/cm. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1645-1649, 2012″
“When plants become shaded by neighbouring plants, they perceive a decrease in the red/far-red (R/FR) ratio of the light environment, which provides an early and unambiguous warning of the presence of competing vegetation. The mechanistic bases of the natural genetic variation in response to shade signals remain largely unknown. This study demonstrates that a wide range of genetic variation for hypocotyl elongation in response to an FR pulse at the end of day (EOD), a light signal that simulates natural shade, exists between Arabidopsis accessions.

One reason for this is that although these organelles are inheren

One reason for this is that although these organelles are inherent to all cells, drugs are being developed that selectively

target the mitochondria of malignant cells without adversely affecting those of normal cells. Such anti-cancer drugs destabilize cancer cell mitochondria and these compounds are referred to as mitocans, classified into several groups according to their mode of action and the location or nature of their specific drug targets. Many mitocans selectively interfere with the bioenergetic functions of cancer cell mitochondria, causing major disruptions often associated with ensuing overloads in ROS production leading to the induction of the intrinsic ATG-010 apoptotic pathway. This in-depth review describes the bases for the bioenergetic differences found between normal and cancer Tariquidar cell mitochondria, focussing on those essential changes occurring during malignancy that clinically may provide the most effective targets for mitocan development. A common theme emerging is that mitochondrially mediated ROS activation as a trigger for apoptosis offers a powerful basis for cancer therapy. Continued research in this area is likely to identify increasing numbers of novel agents that should prove highly effective against a variety of cancers with preferential toxicity towards malignant tissue, circumventing tumor resistance to the other more established therapeutic

anti-cancer approaches. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Silver nanoparticles were coated onto cotton fabrics with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTMS). The coating process was accomplished by soaking the cotton fabrics into silver colloid/3-MPTMS solution at 43 degrees C for 90 min. The coated fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM images showed a layer of silver nanoparticles and 3-MPTMS on cotton. The XPS data showed that distinguishable binding energy peaks of Ag 3d, Si 2p, Si 2s, S 2p

were 368/374, 102, 153, and 162 eV, respectively, which confirms the existence of silver and 3-MPTMS on cotton fabrics. The treated cotton fabrics showed prominent antimicrobial effectiveness against Staphylococcus learn more aureus (ATCC 6538) and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 4352). Furthermore, the laundry test showed that 66% of silver nanoparticles were retained after five washing cycles. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119:2261-2267, 2011″
“Based on semiempirical generalized embedded atom method (GEAM), we carried out molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the structural properties of FeCo and FeNi nanoparticles. It is found that these two kinds of nanoparticles possess a new stable quasicore-shell structure, no matter whether they are in molten or condensed state and whether they are prepared by annealing or quenching.

(C)RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology rsna org/

(C)RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology. rsna. org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.10091824/-/DC1″
“Glycine hydrochloride ([Gly]Cl), a room-temperature ionic liquid (IL), is proposed as a new, good solvent for

chitosan with different deacetylation degrees and molecular weights. However, considered from the viscosity of a solution of chitosan and [Gly]Cl, a 2% [Gly]Cl IL aqueous solution was selected as an optimum solvent system for dissolving chitosan. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to visualize the modifications of the native structures of chitosan during the dissolution and the regeneration processes, morphological features, and properties of the reconstituted chitosan membranes. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3772-3780, 2012″
“Background: Artemether-lumefantrine Etomoxir supplier (ALu) replaced sulphadoxine-pymimethamine (SP) as the official first-line anti-malarial in Tanzania in November 2006. So far, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is contra-indicated during pregnancy by the national malaria treatment guidelines, and pregnant women depend on SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp) during pregnancy. SP is still being dispensed by private drug stores, but it is unknown to which extent. If significant, it may undermine its official use for IPTp through induction of resistance. The main

study objective was to perform a baseline study of the private market for anti-malarials in Muheza town, an area with widespread anti-malarial drug resistance, prior Dinaciclib price to the implementation PND-1186 of a provider training and accreditation programme that will allow accredited drug shops to sell subsidized ALu.

Methods: All drug shops selling prescription-only anti-malarials, in Muheza town, Tanga Region voluntarily participated from July to December 2009. Qualitative in-depth

interviews were conducted with owners or shopkeepers on saleability of anti-malarials, and structured questionnaires provided quantitative data on drugs sales volume.

Results: All surveyed drug shops illicitly sold SP and quinine (QN), and legally amodiaquine (AQ). Calculated monthly sale was 4,041 doses, in a town with a population of 15,000 people. Local brands of SP accounted for 74% of sales volume, compared to AQ (13%), QN (11%) and ACT (2%).

Conclusions: In community practice, the saleability of ACT was negligible. SP was best-selling, and use was not reserved for IPTp, as stipulated in the national anti-malarial policy. It is a major reason for concern that such drug-pressure in the community equals de facto intermittent presumptive treatment. In an area where SP drug resistance remains high, unregulated SP dispensing to people other than pregnant women runs the risk of eventually jeopardizing the effectiveness of the IPTp strategy.

Older participants were significantly more likely to develop new

Older participants were significantly more likely to develop new plaques. Independent of age, the relative risks of developing

new plaques associated with heavy smoking and family history of atherosclerosis were 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.1), respectively.Participants with high (> 3 mu g/mL) and moderate (>= 1 and <= 3 mu g/mL) CRP levels had a relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.3) respectively, when compared with subjects with low (<1 mu g/mL) CRP levels. Surprisingly, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and overweight/obesity were not significant predictors of the ABT-888 supplier development of new carotid artery plaques.

Conclusions: High CRP levels independently predict the development of new plaques in older persons with carotid arteries free from atherosclerotic lesions. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We have studied the magnetoresistance (MR) of locally modified Cu(20 nm)/AlO(x)(1 nm)/NiFe (20 nm)/AlO(x)(1 check details nm)/Cu(3 nm) on a Si substrate. The local modification was performed by irradiating Cu ion beams

on a photoresist wire-covered film. After irradiation, the hysteresis loop shows step-like behavior at a specific ion dose, which is caused by the difference in the switching fields of the irradiated and unirradiated region of the film. Because of this, plateau-like behavior is observed in the transverse MR measurement of the film with 1 x 10(16) ions/cm(2). A cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image shows the irradiation induced intermixing of the magnetic layer with nonmagnetic find more layers. (C) 2011

American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3563070]“
“Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its derivative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are indispensable co-factors in broad-spectrum metabolic events for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in all living organisms. In this study, the cellular expression levels of NAD biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis were investigated. A very high expression of nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT) was observed in the differentiated stomatal guard cells of the leaf surface. Transcriptional analysis confirmed that several genes in the biosynthesis pathway were also highly expressed in stomatal guard cells. In fact, NAD and NADP metabolisms were investigated during stomatal movement. Importantly, the generation of phytohormone ABA-induced reactive oxygen species, which acts as a signal for stomatal closure, was accompanied by markedly decreased levels of NAD. The ABA-induced oxidative stress caused stomatal cell death in the nmnat mutant. Furthermore, stomata partially lost their ability to close leading to drought susceptibility. The stomata were less responsive to opening cues as well.

In 1941, Firth highlighted the case of Augustus d’Est, and later

In 1941, Firth highlighted the case of Augustus d’Est, and later wrote a description of the pathology including a discussion on the aetiology of MS. No previous medical records have given such a characteristic picture of MS as this.”
“A novel conductivity composite from polyaniline (PANI) and layered zirconium phenylphosphonate (ZrPP) was carried out through in situ chemical oxidation polymerization by the addition of an appropriate amount of ammonium peroxodisulfate solution, and the relevant structure and properties were investigated. The composites

learn more were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity was measured by the four-probe technique. The electrical conductivity of the composites improved with increasing ZrPP loading, and the materials had reasonably good electrical properties, even with 40 wt % loadings of ZrPP in the polymer matrix. The results reveal that p-p interaction was formed in the composites, which enhanced the electrical conductivity of the composites compared to that in neat PANI. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym selleck chemicals llc Sci 119: 2334-2338, 2011″
“A systematic

study based on self-consistent dynamical simulations is presented for the spontaneous evolution of an isolated thin solid droplet on a rigid substrate, which is driven by the surface drift diffusion induced by the anisotropic capillary forces (surface stiffness) and mismatch stresses. In this work, we studied the effect of surface free energy anisotropies

[weak and strong (anomalous)] on the development kinetics of the “”Stranski-Krastanow”" island type morphologies. The anisotropic surface free energy and the surface stiffness were treated with well accepted trigonometric functions. Although, various tilt angles and anisotropy XMU-MP-1 purchase constants were considered during simulations, the main emphasis was given on the effect of rotational symmetries associated with the surface Helmholtz free energy topography in two-dimensional space. Our computer simulations revealed the formation of an extremely thin wetting layer during the development of the bell-shaped Stranski-Krastanow island through the mass accumulation at the central region of the droplet via surface drift-diffusion. For weak anisotropy constant levels, instead of singlet islanding, we observed formation of doublet islanding, separated by a shallow wetting layer, for a set of specific tilt angles, phi=90 degrees and phi=45 degrees, respectively, for the twofold and fourfold rotational symmetry axis. No such formation has been detected for the sixfold symmetry.

Women in the chronic distress group reported greater pessimistic

Women in the chronic distress group reported greater pessimistic outlook.

Conclusion: Optimism and better early post-operative treatment outcomes predicted resilience to distress. Pre-operative interventions helping women to establish a realistic expectation of treatment outcome may minimize disappointment with treatment outcome and resultant distress, whereas post-operative rehabilitation should focus on symptom management. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Purpose: To evaluate and compare the therapeutic efficacy of quetiapine in bipolar I

and II depression patients in the clinical setting.

Patients and methods: This was an 8-week, multicenter, open-label, observational study for bipolar depression. The dosage of quetiapine was flexible, and concomitant medications were permitted on clinician’s judgments. A total of 1097 patients were enrolled, and 764 bipolar depression patients who exhibited CHIR98014 good therapeutic compliance (>75% compliance rate) were analyzed.

Results: JNK-IN-8 concentration Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores were significantly improved

at weeks four and eight compared with the baseline scores. At the end of the 8-week study, the response rate was 58.9%, and the remission rate was 42.1%. However, there were no significant differences in the response and remission rates between bipolar I and II disorder (BD-I and BD-II) patients (response rate 60.1% versus 56.3%; remission rate 44.5% versus 37.0%). Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score at baseline (beta=0.612, P<0.001), duration of current episode (beta=-0.152, P=0.001), and presence of remission on previous episode (beta=0.111, P=0.012) were significantly associated with improvements in depressive symptoms. Fatigue (16.0%), somnolence (14.9%), and manic/hypomanic switching (0.6% at week four, 0.3% at week eight) were observed throughout the study


Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that quetiapine improves depressive symptoms in BD-I and selleck kinase inhibitor BD-II patients with a minimal incidence of manic switching. The therapeutic efficacy of quetiapine increased with time. Quetiapine could be an effective and safe modality for the treatment of BD-I and BD-II.”
“Objective: African-American men have an incidence rate of prostate cancer 60% higher than Caucasian men. Over one-quarter of men with prostate cancer experience significant distress, yet psychosocial research has rarely focused on African-American men. This study presents novel data on emotional well-being, distress, anxiety, and depression in African-American men with prostate cancer.

Methods: This archival research combined two databases (N = 385 and N = 367) comprised of 55 African-American men with prostate cancer. Quality of life was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, distress was measured with the Distress Thermometer, and anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

A 25-mu L aliquot of each suspension was deposited

in the

A 25-mu L aliquot of each suspension was deposited

in the center of wounds created on the Graftskin. Sections were incubated at various time points, and a biopsy was then taken from the wounded and inoculated area. Sections were visualized with light (hematoxylin and eosin) and epifluorescent microscopy (calcofluor white and ethidium bromide).


Biofilm Foretinib solubility dmso was observed on the wound model. Biofilm formation was dependent on time of Graftskin exposure to the bacteria. Biofilm was visualized in the S. aureus group at an earlier time point than in the P. aeruginosa group.


We demonstrated biofilm formation in vitro using a wound model. This model may provide a basis on which future

studies may explore therapeutic modalities to prevent Evofosfamide and eradicate pathogenic bacterial biofilm.

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.”
“This study investigated the expression pattern of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in mouse endometrium during early pregnancy and its function during embryo implantation. The expression of Gal-3 was measured at the mRNA level using real-time PCR and at the protein level using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The expression of Gal-3 mRNA and protein in the pregnant group was higher than in the non-pregnant group, and mRNA and protein expression reached their maximum levels on days 4 and 2, respectively. Immunohistochemistry results showed that Gal-3 protein presented in luminal epithelium and glandular selleck 抑制剂 epithelium and reached its maximum on days 6-8 and days 2-4 after pregnancy, respectively. The number of embryos implanted decreased substantially when Gal-3 was knocked down in mouse endometrium. In conclusion, increased Gal-3 expression after pregnancy is required for embryo implantation. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”


Various types of allogenic skin substitutes composed of cryopreserved keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or both have been used for treatments of diabetic foot ulcers, but the effects have generally not been dramatic because cryopreservation impairs cell activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of non-cryopreserved fresh human fibroblast allografts in treating diabetic foot ulcers.


Human dermal fibroblasts from healthy teenagers were cultured and applied over the foot ulcers of 37 patients with diabetes. Control treatment was performed in 18 patients. Eight weeks after treatment, the percentages of complete healing, mean healing times, and patient satisfaction were compared, with follow-up ranging from 6 to 40 months.


Our study showed that 83.8% of the treated group and 50.0% of the control group experienced complete healing. The times required for complete healing were 30.9 +/- 10.

The finding of these mutations in this Brazilian population refle

The finding of these mutations in this Brazilian population reflects the mixing process that occurred during its formation.”
“Objectives. This study assessed the effect of recombinant fibroblast growth

DMXAA manufacturer factor (FGF-2) on reimplanted teeth.

Study design. Premolars were reimplanted in dogs. Roots on the left side of the mandible were treated with FGF-2, whereas roots on right side served as controls. At 2, 4, or 8 weeks after treatment, animals were humanely killed and specimens collected and processed for histopathologic examination.

Results. After 2 weeks, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cell ratios in the experimental group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P < .01). After 4 and 8 weeks, the experimental group showed formation of new cementum. Moreover, incidence of replacement resorption in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < .01).

Conclusion. The results indicate that FGF-2 promotes formation of new periodontal ligament and prevents ankylosis and root resorption following reimplantation of teeth. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 142-148)”
“This study investigated the phase-change activities

on a gallium-doped indium oxide (Ga:InO) device that can be supplied with a constant heat flow via symmetric contact to a pair of rodlike heating elements. A device set/reset current of 0.8/18 mu A and resistance window of 2.6 x 10(5) to 10(7) ohm can be found on Ga:InO with a 6.2 mu m(2) device area and a thickness of 40 nm. Analysis of a log-log

plot Mocetinostat concentration revealed slopes of 1.07 +/- 0.01 and -1.12 +/- 0.03 that were found to correlate with the switching current and resistance change between the high-/low-value states of the Ga:InO device area, respectively. These observations Acadesine datasheet lead to the estimated energy densities of 1.77 +/- 0.11 pJ/mu m(3) and 7.26 +/- 0.44 pJ/mu m(3) required to initiate the set and reset process in Ga:InO, respectively. Through differential scanning calorimetry analysis and acceleration tests of the Ga:InO film and the device, an activation energy of similar to 1.275 +/- 0.005 eV was found, which corresponded to the high-/low-resistance state change. A data retention time of ten years was further estimated when the Ga: InO device is operated at 75 degrees C. According to the transmission electron microscopy analysis, these observations are correlated with an amorphous to cubic phase transition in In(2)O(3), which takes place at a crystallization temperature of 252 degrees C, and suggest that the phase-change activities originate from the Joule heating effect. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3494089]“
“Objectives. Bacterial metabolites demineralize dental hard tissues, and soluble factors lead to tertiary dentinogenesis in the area of the dentin-pulp complex.