With technology now allowing for directly visualizing a periphera

With technology now allowing for directly visualizing a peripheral nerve prior to injection, perineural nerve block, including brachial plexus nerve block, has become increasingly popular. The brachial plexus is a large, complex bundle of nerves (arising from the nerve roots C5-T1). A single injection of local anesthetic around the brachial plexus nerve bundle results in block of arm selleck chemical Seliciclib tissue innervated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by selleck chem inhibitor several peripheral nerves. Several approaches to the brachial plexus blockade have been described (i.e., the axillary, infraclavicular,

supraclavicular, and interscalene) and each have advantages in certain situations. Stabilization of the needle for catheter insertion after brachial plexus blockade is localized and is a challenging aspect

of this technique [2]. Brachial plexus blockade may require dispersion of a relatively large volume of bupivacaine in solution to accomplish blockade of the entire Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plexus. Complications may include infection, hematoma, vascular puncture, toxicity, injury, and total spinal anesthesia [3]. After performing the block procedure, peripheral nerves may be damaged from prolonged contact with concentrated formulations [4, 5]. From a systemic standpoint, high doses of bupivacaine may be associated with a wide range of systemic complications, such as central nervous and cardiovascular effects [6]. A formulation of bupivacaine that provides prolonged release of the active ingredient after a single administration Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical would simplify pain management in the postoperative period and eliminate the undesired peak plasma concentrations as a result of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical excessively high concentrations and reduce the risk of local and systemic reactions [7]. EXPAREL (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension) is a sterile suspension of multivesicular liposomes using proprietary DepoFoam formulation technology to release bupivacaine over several days. EXPAREL, the proposed proprietary

name, was designed to provide prolonged analgesia for 72 hours after wound infiltration in patients [8]. Although different liposomal formulations have been administered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to humans without toxicity [9], the in vivo tolerability of liposomes continues to be investigated. AV-951 Our goal was to evaluate the potential local and systemic toxicity of EXPAREL after a bolus injection into the brachial plexus (i.e., a large, complex bundle of nerves in the shoulder). Specifically, the study was designed to assess whether EXPAREL did not produce nerve damage in the setting of peripheral nerve block by comparison with unencapsulated bupivacaine or saline control. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Materials 2.1.1. Description of DepoFoam Technology The DepoFoam drug-delivery system is a proprietary, injectable technology that provides a sustained release of therapeutic compounds. The DepoFoam system consists of multivesicular liposomes composed of hundreds to thousands of chambers per particle, resembling a “honeycomb-like” matrix [10].

5% versus 2 9%) Onset

of these disorders is believed to

5% versus 2.9%). Onset

of these disorders is believed to be prior to or at birth, while symptoms are usually not evident until age 2 years or later; generally Asperger’s disorder is not recognized until later. ASDs are chronic, devastating neuropsychological disorders and are four times more common in males than females. While many hypotheses have been explored to explain the etiology of this cluster of disorders, no single cause has been agreed upon, though the research exploring genetic factors is one of the most promising.144,145 former Recent advances in imaging have been fruitful in research Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on understanding ASDs. These disorders have very complex and vast symptoms, but their neural substrates are beginning to be untangled. At this time, it seems clear that delayed frontal lobe metabolic maturation occurs in autism,146 which may be related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to some of the early repetitive behaviors. There is also bilateral temporal hypoperfusion.147,148 Overall, there seems to be a widespread disorganized establishment of neural Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical circuits.149 Abnormalities in the cerebellum with a wide range of consequences

has also been established.150 As in OCD, hypotheses of the etiology of ASD suggest dysregulation of the serotonin system.151 SRIs, the treatments of choice for OCD, have been used clinically in the treatment of repetitive behaviors in autism. Promising results have been found in small controlled trials of the efficacy of clomipramine and fluvoxamine,152 and we are currently conducting controlled studies of the

efficacy of fluoxetine versus placebo in both childhood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and adult autism. Given the complex, multifaceted symptomatology found in ASDs, we do not expect one class of agents to be uniquely effective in treating their global severity. Rather, it is likely that treatments will be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most effective against targeted symptoms. Since these disorders also have an impulsive element, with sometimes prominent aggression, self-injury, and mood instability, we are conducting a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the mood-stabilizer divalproex sodium in kinase inhibitor KPT-330 children and adolescents with autism. Other successful treatments of ASDs include intensive behavioral therapies are the most widely recognized modalities of treatment for ASDs. Home- and schoolbased behavioral therapies aim Cilengitide toward reducing repetitive and self-/other injurious behaviors and increasing communication and social skills. Conclusions The concept of an OC spectrum of related disorders is a powerful one that has helped generate theoretical discussion and research questions in broad areas of their etiology, neurobiology, and treatment. Though coming from a wide range of diagnostic categories and differing in significant ways, research to date suggests that, in addition to sharing some symptom patterns, these disorders have many other similarities.

However, this is a retrospective study in a single center We did

However, this is a retrospective study in a single ref 3 center. We did not collect whole diastolic parameters such as E’ velocity, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time, and E/E’ ratio in every patients. Therefore, our findings should be verified by further well-controlled prospective study. Limitations This study has several limitations. AV calcification has been shown to be associated with more rapid progression of AVS,3),5) and ethnic difference in valve thickening and calcification might elucidate the mechanism of the slow

progression of AVS in current study.7),8) Unfortunately, we did not include the grading of AV calcification by echocardiography Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or the quantification of AV Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical calcification and thickness by computed tomography (CT) in this study. However, we believe the quantitation of AV calcification by echocardiography is not reliable enough because it depends significantly on the machine setting, image quality and the echocardiographer’s

experience. Also, we had difficulty to do CT scan in the routine evaluation of AVS because CT scan has the risk of radiation exposure. In present study, the progression rate of AVS is slower than that in previous studies conducted in Western population. However, it is hard to compare the progression rate of AVS among different studies and disclose Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the cause of difference in the progression rate of AVS because clinical and echocardiographic BI 6727 characteristics among studies are different. E velocity was significantly associated with AVS progression in our study. The reason for this finding remains uncertain Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical although diastolic dysfunction could be suggested. For better explanation, we have to consider whole diastolic parameters such as E’ velocity, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time, and E/E’ ratio. However, this is a retrospective study in a single Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical center. We did not collect whole diastolic parameters such as E’ velocity, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time, and E/E’ ratio in every patients. This is a retrospective study in a single center. Therefore, our findings should be verified by further well-controlled prospective

study. Finally, our study focused only on hemodynamic progression, which is not synonymous with clinical progression. AV-951 In conclusion, this is the study to estimate the progression rate in Korean AVS patients. In this study, AVS progresses more rapidly in severe AVS than in moderate or mild AVS. Also, AVS severity and BAV are associated with more rapid progression of AVS. Comparing our results with previous studies, the progression rate of AVS in Korean appears to be slower than that in Western population. Therefore, ethnic differences should be considered for the follow-up of the patients with AVS.
Echocardiography is routinely utilized to assess cardiac function and chamber size. It has been become a valuable tool with which to diagnose intra-cardiac masses in patients with atrial fibrillation.

von Hippel (1) and A Lindau (2) early in the 20th century It is

von Hippel (1) and A. Lindau (2) early in the 20th century. It is a rare highly penetrant autosomal dominant genetic predisposition to malignant and benign tumors, emanating from over 1,000 possible mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25. However, approximately 20% of these mutations occur de novo (3). It is typically associated with central nervous system hemangioblastomas, clear renal cell carcinomas, cystadenomas, and neuro-endocrine tumors depending on the sub-type (4). Patients with VHL type I usually manifest hemangioblastomas but rarely present with clear renal cell carcinoma or pheochromocytoma. On the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical other hand, patients with VHL type II comprises

sub-types A, B, and C, which predispose to the development of hemangioblastoma; hemangioblastomas and clear renal cell carcinoma; and pheochromocytomas; respectively (4). The rarely observed VHL type III is associated with Chuvash polycythemia. Pancreatic serous cystadenomas Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are entail a relatively rare VHL presentation, affecting only ~10% of patients (5). Further rarely, the above

mentioned patient sub-population develops Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hepato-biliary obstruction requiring decompression (6). In the presented case, the pancreatic serous cystadenomas (Figure 1) was unresectable as per the extent of the disease and the concomitant portal hypertension. Yet, a suitable palliative alternative was de rigueur. Percutaneous cholecytostomy tube (PTC) would transiently palliate hepato-billiary, but would not alleviate gastric outlet obstruction. PTC is www.selleckchem.com/products/ganetespib-sta-9090.html inconvenient in a functional patient with favorable prognosis. Duodenal stent option was limited by the distorted anatomy and would not resolve the biliary obstruction. Ideally, this patient would require

a choledocho- (or haepatico-) jejunostomy and a gastro-jejunostomy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical fashioned on a single limb or through a Roux-en-Y reconstructive bypass. Nevertheless, extensive portal-hypertension Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical secondary to occlusion of the portal vein and the subsequent development of varices at the level of the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pacritinib-sb1518.html hepatoduodenal ligament would render this surgical option unnecessarily risky, if not unwantedly Cilengitide morbid. Along the same line, any laparoscopic approach would be discouraging. As a result, a cholecysto-jejunostomy (in addition to a gastro-jejunostomy) was performed. Currently, this procedure turned into a mere historical curiosity—it is performed only as a last resort, and most often in the developing world where resources are scarce, expertise is scant, and patients generally present with advanced disease (7). However, this procedure constitutes a safe and effective last-resort in the hepato-billiary armamentary. Undoubtedly, the surgical procedure described above does not treat portal hypertension. But since the patient remains asymptomatic, neither a surgical shunt nor a trans-jugular intra-hepatic systemic shunt is currently indicated. It is hard to explain the uncontrolled hyperglycemia experienced by the patient.

The affinities and functional activities of asenapine at neurotra

The affinities and functional activities of asenapine at neurotransmitter receptors have been systematically determined by Shahid et al. [2009]; the affinities from radioligand binding assays they reported will be discussed below. In common with all antipsychotic drugs asenapine has a high affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor, substantially higher, in fact, than the other atypical drugs other than the partial

agonist aripiprazole. Given that, as discussed below, it is the affinity at the dopamine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical D2 receptor that most likely mediates the anti-manic mechanism and thereby determines dose, affinity at other receptors can be described relative to the D2 value. Interestingly, asenapine has a higher affinity for the D3 subtype of the dopamine D2-like receptors

than for D2 itself, a property shared with ziprasidone alone among the atypicals. It also has a substantial affinity for the D4 receptor along with several, but not all, of the other atypicals, although there is now little to indicate this site is of functional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical importance in antipsychotic action. The high affinity of asenapine for the 5-HT2A receptor too is greater than that for the other atypicals, although all have effective antagonist activity at this site. It is the 5-HT2A Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activity that is the primary pharmacology considered to differentiate these atypical drugs from the conventional antipsychotics. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical What differentiates asenapine pharmacologically from the other atypical antipsychotics is the breadth of its activities at other 5-HT receptors. Thus antagonism at 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors is apparent at affinities at or greater than that for the D2 receptor; activity at the 5-HT2C site is particularly high. Furthermore, activities at 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors

may be great enough to have some functional effect at clinical doses. Asenapine appears to be a partial agonist at the 5-HT1A site [Ghanbari et al. 2009] as are most other check FAQ atypicals except Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for risperidone and olanzapine. Alpha1A adrenoceptor antagonism is likely to occur at clinical doses, an effect true for most other atypicals except aripiprazole. Asenapine has high relative affinities for the alpha2 adrenoceptors, as does clozapine and AV-951 quetiapine; risperidone too may have some activity, particularly at the alpha2C site. However, in functional assays, the activity of both risperidone and asenapine at these sites is relatively low [Shahid et al. 2009]. Three further receptor actions have been reported: asenapine is a relatively effective antagonist at histamine H1 receptors, as are quetiapine, olanzapine and clozapine, and is, uniquely, an antagonist at H2 receptors. It has no effect at the muscarinic receptors, in contrast to the relatively high affinities at these sites shown by clozapine and olanzapine.

People for whom certain genetic variations hinder the metabolism

People for whom certain genetic variations hinder the metabolism of a certain drug, thus making that drug either ineffective or toxic, should simply not be prescribed that specific drug. However, the real picture

is slightly more complicated. There are four criteria for judging the clinical usefulness of pharmacogenomics. Firstly, the strength of association with the clinical problem is essential. Clearly, if the strength of association is low, so is the use of pharmacogenomics. Secondly, we need to evaluate the clinical importance of the specific clinical problem to justify the use of pharmacogenomics. Trivial medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical problems do not warrant the use of pharmacogenomics. Thirdly, we need to factor in the predictiveness of pharmacogenomics for the individual patient, and lastly, other available treatment options must be considered. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These four factors must be taken into account when bringing pharmacogenomics into the practice of medicine. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, LATE STENT THROMBOSIS, AND PHARMACOGENOMICS Heart disease fits the criterion of clinical importance.

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical More than 2,200 Americans die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each day,2 and there are many pharmacogenomic implications for CVD.3–5 If a life-saving drug was shown to be less effective for people who carry a certain genetic marker, and, even more pertinent, if as a result of this genetic predisposition they were at risk if given a certain drug, it is clearly medically relevant. One common procedure performed on patients with acute CVD is stenting. Over 1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical million stent procedures are first annually performed in the United States.6 Although drug-eluting stents have been very successful in preventing re-narrowing, or restenosis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the coronary arteries, these stents carry a slight increase in risk for late stent thrombosis (Figure 1). The occurrence of late stent thrombosis

is the result of several factors such as incomplete stent apposition. The frequency of late stent thrombosis occurrence is low, but the risk continues over time. Despite the low frequency, the clinical implication of stent thrombosis is dire since the chance of death or myocardial infarction from stent thrombosis Entinostat is 40%–60%. Therefore, patients with drug-eluting stents are treated with dual selleck chemical antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) for the recommended duration. Figure 1 Stent thrombosis. ANTIPLATELET THERAPY AND CLOPIDOGREL The antiplatelet therapy drug, clopidogrel (Plavix®) is a prodrug which is activated in the liver in a two-step process by cytochrome P450 enzymes (Figure 2). The bioavailability of clopidogrel is determined by the genetic make-up of these enzymes and other enzymes in addition to intestinal absorption. Clopidogrel acts upon an ADP receptor that is found on platelet cell membranes.

However, the possible

However, the possible existence of abnormalities in signal transduction pathways suggests that, for patients refractory to conventional medications, improved therapeutics may only be obtained by the direct, targeting of postreceptor sites. Recent discoveries concerning a variety of mechanisms involved in the formation and inactivation of second messengers offers the promise for the development of novel pharmacological agents designed to target signal transduction pathways. Although clearly more complex than the development

of receptor-specific drugs, it may be possible to design novel agents to selectively affect, second Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical messenger systems, because they are quite heterogeneous at. the molecular and cellular level, are linked to receptors in a variety of ways, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and are expressed in different stoichiometrics in different, cell types. Additionally, since signal transduction pathways display certain unique characteristics depending on their activity state, they offer built-in targets for relative specificity of action, depending on the “setpoint” of the substrate. It. is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical also noteworthy that a variety of strategies to enhance neurotrophic factor signaling are currently under

investigation. An increasing number of strategies are being investigated to develop small molecular switches for protein-protein interactions, which have the potential to regulate the activity of growth factors, MAP kinase cascades, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and interactions between homo- and heterodimers of the bcl-2 family of proteins160; this progress holds much promise for the development, of novel therapeutics

agents for the long-term treatment of severe mood disorders, and for improving the lives of selleck chemical millions. Selected abbreviations and acronyms AMPA α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid BDNF brain-derived Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neurotrophic factor cAMP cyclic adenosine monopimosphate CREB cAMP response element binding protein FC frontal http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Imatinib(STI571).html cortex HPA hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal LTP long-term potentiation MAP mitogen-activated protein MDD major depressive disorder NAA N-acetylaspartate NGF nerve growth factor NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate PDE4 phosphodiesterase PFC prefrontal cortex Entinostat SSRI serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor VPA valproic acid
This review concerns the clinical pharmacology of antidepressant medication. We describe the major developments that have occurred during the last decades and list several directions for future developments. To prepare this text, we consulted clinical and fundamental publications, and reviews and meta-analyses covering many aspects of drug treatment of depressive states, such as comparative efficacy,1,2 the incidence of side effects,3 and dose-response curves.

The rats were administered ketofen (3–5 mg/kg) to minimize pain a

The rats were administered ketofen (3–5 mg/kg) to minimize pain and returned to normal housing to recover

for 3–5 days. OPTICAL STIMULATION AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC RECORDINGS Using our adapted NeuroRighter system, electrophysiologic recordings were sampled at 25 kHz with a 1–9,000 Hz bandwidth. LFPs were isolated online with a 1–500 Hz 1-pole Butterworth band-pass kinase inhibitors of signaling pathways filter and downsampled to 2000 Hz. Action potentials were isolated both online (Newman et al., 2013) and offline, with the offline results presented here. Action potentials were detected offline using custom-written adaptations to the automated spike-sorting Wave_clus scripts (Quiroga et al., 2004). The raw data was band-pass filtered offline from 500 to 5000 Hz. For the TDT electrodes, the median signal was removed across the CA3 and CA1 electrodes, respectively. For the NeuroNexus Array, the median signal was removed across all electrodes. Positive and negative thresholds were applied at 5x the SD of the signal, and the resulting waveforms were matched, sorted, and isolated using

superparamagnetic clustering (Wave_clus; Quiroga et al., 2004). Power spectra and spectrograms were computed using the Chronux suite of analysis tools and multitaper analysis (Bokil et al., 2010), with a moving window size of 4 s stepping in 0.5 s increments, T = 4, W = 1, and seven tapers. Data were recorded intraoperatively and for up to 4 weeks postoperatively. To stimulate awake and behaving animals, calibrated ferrules were connected via armored patch fiber cables (200 μm diameter, 0.67 NA, Plexon). Square-wave stimulation pulses varied between 10, 30, and 50 mW/mm2; 7, 11 (theta), 17, 23, 35 (beta), and 42 (gamma) Hz; and 2, 5, and 10 ms pulse widths. NeuroRighter enables custom-designed

stimulation times and amplitudes to be defined via Matlab script (Newman et al., 2013). We leveraged this customizability to develop several other stimulation patterns, including varying frequency, Poisson distributions, and continuous sinusoids, which are described in more detail as they are presented. In all cases, the experimental protocol consisted of repeated 1 min recordings of 20 s of background, 20 s of stimulation with a particular pattern, and a subsequent 20 s of additional background. Stimulation protocols were performed Cilengitide in random order and repeated numerous times over several recording sessions. This setup was able to stimulate and record LFP and single-unit responses from awake and behaving animals uninterrupted for several hours and over several days. HISTOLOGY Histology was performed after experimentation to verify microelectrode recording locations and light-sensitive ion channel expression. Rats were deeply anesthetized with an overdose of Euthasol (5 ml/kg, Virbac, Fort Worth, TX, USA) injected intraperitoneally. They were then transcardially perfused with 0.9% saline followed by 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.2.

For example, the widespread use of over-the-counter, unregulated

For example, the widespread use of over-the-counter, unregulated treatments needs to be carefully examined for possible benefit and for potential harm. Use of complementary and

alternative approaches is very high.27,28 Even in patients volunteering for participation in clinical drug trials, use of herbal medications is substantial; in a series of 150 such Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical subjects, Emmanuel and colleagues29 report that 56% have used herbs in the last month. It is therefore incumbent upon us to evaluate these treatments, including natural products such as St John’s Wort or kava, psychophysiologic approaches such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and somatic approaches such as acupuncture, if for no other reason than

that our patients are using these in large, uncontrolled, natural experiments. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A final priority must be dissemination. Our patients are not helped by treatments that are available in only in scientific journals. A recent example highlights the problem. Lehman and Steinwachs30 report that fewer than half the patients with schizophrenia in the United States received a level of care that was consistent with the current state of the art. This is an important Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical finding that cannot be ignored. As a field we must take on the challenge of translating our research into practice and placing the most powerful clinical tools in the hands of patients, their families, and the clinicians that care of them. Conclusion The mental health field is significantly altering the culture of selleck compound treatment research by moving from a narrowly defined regulatory model to a more inclusive public health model. This new approach to intervention Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical promises to improve patient care by addressing the types of practical questions

and functional outcomes that are typically brought to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the attention of clinicians. This new generation of research is directed toward defining standards of appropriate and cost-effective treatment for the diverse population of patients seen in all health care settings. This should not be taken to indicate that there is no place for the highly STI 571 controlled efficacy research needed to establish that a treatment has merit. But rather Drug_discovery it is now the case that efficacy is the beginning of a process of inquiry and not the end. The interdependence of challenge and opportunity, often used as a cliché, should be considered real and entirely appropriate in this instance. The challenge to all of us as patients, clinicians, scientists, or educators is great. We are all having to learn to do new things. At the same time, there is a wonderful opportunity to have a significant impact on improving patient care. This opportunity is too good to miss.
The last, decades have been a time of active research and discover}’ in the fields of psychotropic medication, the identification and classification of psychiatric disorders, and the physiology of higher brain functions, such as emotions, memory, or consciousness.

Precaution needs to be taken when selecting the dilution ratio t

Precaution needs to be taken when selecting the dilution ratio to avoid the non-linear response. For the wine sample, a dilution ratio of 10 times is required for the glassy carbon electrode [16] and 250�C2000 times for the platinum electrode [15]. The precious metals usually Tofacitinib alopecia possess a very high activity. Most species are readily oxidized at relatively low potential on platinum, whereas, the oxidation potential for the glassy carbon electrode is higher, thus enabling the undesirable co-oxidation of interference. Metalized carbon (metal particles dispersed carbon) has shown the ability to oxidize electroactive species at low potential that minimizes background current and hence favors the signal-to-noise ratio [12,21,22]. The working electrode in this work is iridium-carbon (Ir-C), which has an oxidizing potential of +0.

35 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), while glassy carbon oxidizes caffeic acid at +0.45 V [16]. Consequently, it is anticipated that the response is linear over the entire concentration range and the dilution is not necessary for the white wine sample as it is shown in Figure 2. The calibration curve for various proportions of wine (not shown) possesses a sensitivity of 0.0116 ��A/(% wine) with a linear correlation of 0.9928.Figure 2.Voltammograms of wine sample at different dilution ratios.2.2. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Scavenging Activity on DPPHThe antioxidant capacity of substances is conventionally characterized using the scavenging activity on DPPH? and total phenolic content assays.

Thus, the correlations between caffeic acid content and those parameters are essential in order to justify the electrochemical sensor as an alternative approach. Figure 3 illustrates a linear correlation of 0.9823 between TPC and caffeic acid content. A linear correlation of 0.9958 against % DPPH? scavenging is reported in Figure 4. Since it is the major polyphenol in white wine, caffeic acid therefore presumably contributes most of the antioxidant capacity of white wine. Consequently, caffeic acid content could legitimately reflect the antioxidant capacity of white wine.Figure 3.Correlation between total phenolic content and caffeic acid content.Figure 4.Correlation between %DPPH?scavenging and caffeic acid content.3.?Experimental Section3.1. Chemicals and InstrumentsCaffeic acid, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryldyfrazyl radical (DPPH?) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. The potentiostat is the CHI405 Electrochemical Work Station (CHI instrument, Austin, Texas, USA). White wine under the trademark ��Michel Torino�� year 2007 from Argentina was purchased from a local store.3.2.