Interestingly, culture of the debrided deep tissue, likely Surgisis remnant, showed no growth at 5 days. The patient was treated postoperatively with a short course of oral ciprofloxacin, and has remained free of complaint or finding in the right groin since. Fifteen months after
his right groin exploration, the patient again presented to us with complaints of pain in his left inguinal area. This pain had become constant, and had persisted for several months. After repeated complaints from the patient, despite the absence of any generalized signs such as fever, and without C646 order any external signs of infection or recurrent hernia (see Fig. 1a), his primary physician had ordered an abdominal ultrasound, which demonstrated an abdominal wall fluid collection. A subsequent computed tomographic (CT) scan of his abdomen and pelvis revealed ‘a small superficial fluid collection measuring 4.4 × 1.6 cm. Some low attenuation fluid is also
seen tracking into the lower anterior pelvic wall musculature’ (Fig. 1b). This striking radiologic finding was strong evidence for a chronic and localized inflammatory process, and the patient underwent left groin exploration. At surgery, the patient was noted again to have multiple retained polypropylene sutures, all of which were removed, and some of which were preserved for confocal microscopic examination. Just superficial to the abdominal wall fascia proper a small collection of turbid fluid was opened – this was sent Cyclopamine mw for culture, and was observed to emerge from deeper in the fascia as noted in the CT report. On opening the fascia repair more widely, more cloudy (not purulent) fluid was released and a large mass of material was noted within the inguinal canal itself. This material (as on the right side previously) had the consistency of a wet tissue paper; it was clearly not incorporated or vascularized, and was removed piecemeal with a forceps until no trace remained. This material clearly represented the Surgisis implant that had been placed at a previous surgery. Finally, a hard mass of retained polypropylene mesh was discovered and was explanted. After irrigation
of the surgical site, the fascia was repaired directly with IMP dehydrogenase absorbable sutures, and the skin was closed over a suction drain. The patient’s history and our previous experience in the right groin led us to strongly suspect a biofilm etiology to his disease in the left groin, and we therefore took multiple specimens to examine both culturally and with confocal microscopy (CM). Four separate specimens of the explanted xenograft were sent for culture, as well as a piece of the explanted polypropylene mesh. Multiple specimens were also preserved for CM. Only a single specimen of the xenograft returned positive for culture, yielding coagulase-negative staphylococci sensitive to cephalosporins; all other specimens showed no growth at 5 days.