In contrast, DP thymocytes that express a TCR specific for a self-antigenic peptide are negatively selected and die via apoptosis. To examine the effect of LAR deficiency on negative and positive selection, we crossed transgenic mice that carry a transgene encoding a TCR that recognizes male-specific peptides presented on H-2Db
molecules (HY-TCR-Tg mice) 21 with LAR−/− mice and compared the CD4/CD8 profile of LAR−/−HY-TCR-Tg mice with that of LAR+/+HY-TCR-Tg mice. In normal female HY-TCR-Tg mice, the differentiation of DP thymocytes is skewed toward CD8SP cells by positive selection. In LAR−/−HY-TCR-Tg female mice, thymocyte differentiation was less skewed toward CD8SP compared with normal HY-TCR transgenic female mice (Fig. 4). The https://www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-0332991.html average ratio of CD8SP thymocytes to CD4SP thymocytes was 2.31±1.01 and 1.54±0.61 in WT and LAR−/−HY-TCR-Tg female mice, respectively (p=0.04). In the periphery, the ratios of CD8/CD4 T cells in WT and HY-TCR-Tg
mice with or without the LAR−/− mutation were similar (Supporting Information Fig. 5) 6; the lack of difference in these ratios may be due to peripheral homeostatic mechanisms that compensate for LAR deficiency. In contrast to HY-TCR-Tg female mice, most DP thymocytes in the transgenic male mice die via apoptosis selleck products because the HY-TCR interacts with male peptides presented on H-2Db molecules expressed on thymic antigen-presenting cells during negative selection. Thus, the percentage of DP, CD4SP and CD8SP thymocytes was reduced. As shown
in Fig. 5, the sum of the DP, CD4SP and CD8SP thymocyte percentages from LAR−/−HY-TCR-Tg male mice was higher than the sum from normal HY-TCR-Tg male mice (p<0.01). Taken together, these results indicate that LAR deficiency may affect both the positive and negative selection of thymocytes. Next, we examined the effect of LAR deficiency on TCR-mediated thymocyte activation. Specifically, we examined the effect of LAR deficiency on GPX6 the alteration of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration that was induced following TCR-mediated stimulation. Thymocytes from WT and LAR−/− mice were loaded with a Ca2+ indicator, Fluo4 and stimulated with a CD3-specific antibody together with a hamster IgG-specific antibody. The intensity of Fluo-4 fluorescence was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation. The intensity increased after stimulation, reached a peak within 2–3 min and then decreased gradually in both groups of mice. However, compared with WT mice, the population that responded was significantly lower in thymocytes from LAR−/− mice (p<0.05) (Fig. 6). These results suggest that LAR is involved in TCR signaling in thymocytes. We also examined the effect of LAR deficiency on the proliferation of thymocytes following stimulation with CD3- and CD28-specific antibodies. The level of thymocyte proliferation was similar in both groups (Supporting Information Fig. 6).