This study was approved by the institutional review board at Univ

This study was approved by the institutional review board at University of California Los Angeles with a waiver of informed consent. Results The all smokers cohort smoked selleck chemicals an average of 15.9 cigarettes per day in the CTS2 survey. Among these, those who had quit smoking at the time of the HCC2 survey had smoked significantly less at the time of the CTS2 survey (p < .01, 10.7 vs. 17.1 cigarettes per day) than those who had not quit smoking. The ADM smokers cohort smoked significantly more at the time of the CTS2 survey (p < . 01, 17.0 vs. 14.9 cigarettes per day) than the non-ADM smokers cohort. Table 1 shows the ADM smokers cohort and non-ADM smokers cohort were equally likely to receive smoking cessation counseling (p not significant, 72.9% vs. 69.9%).

However, the ADM smokers were less likely than non-ADM smokers to be successful quitters (p < .05, 17.1% vs. 22.0%). The two cohorts also significantly differed in several other characteristics, with ADM smokers more likely to receive exercise counseling (p < .01, 44.3% vs. 34.9%), to be younger, to live in the West, to have lower levels of education, to have lower levels of income, to be not married, to be unemployed, to be uninsured, and to be less physically active. Table 1. Successful Quit Status and Sociodemographic Characteristics for All Smokers, ADM Disorder Smokers, and Non-ADM Disorder Smokers Table 2 shows the results from probit regression analyses of successful quitting for the all smokers cohort and the separate ADM smokers and non-ADM smokers cohorts.

In the analyses without using the instrumental variable, there was a negative significant association between receipt of smoking cessation counseling in the past year with successful quitting (coefficient = ?1.04, p < .01 for all smokers; coefficient = ?0.93, p < .01 for ADM smokers, coefficient = ?1.16, p < .01 for non-ADM smokers). The Durbin�CWu�CHausman specification test could not reject hidden bias in the analysis for all smokers (��2 = 76.68, p < .01), for ADM smokers (��2 = 54.04, p < .01), or for non-ADM smokers (��2 = 52.59, p < .01), which suggests that using an instrumental variable approach to address hidden bias is appropriate. Table 2. Estimated Probit Regression Models of Successful Quitting When exercise counseling was included as an explanatory variable instead of smoking cessation counseling in the regression analyses of quitting, exercise counseling had a positive association with smoking cessation status for all smokers (coefficient = 0.

19, p < .05), for ADM smokers (coefficient = 0.25, p < .10), and for non-ADM smokers (coefficient = 0.19, p < .10). In the first-stage regression model of the instrumental variable analyses in which smoking Carfilzomib cessation counseling was as a function of past year PCP exercise counseling and other covariates, the ��2 test was 34.16 for all smokers, 13.

, Grass Lake, MI, USA) with an atmosphere of 85% N2, 10% CO2 and

, Grass Lake, MI, USA) with an atmosphere of 85% N2, 10% CO2 and 5% H2 (PanGas AG, Dagmersellen, Switzerland). Fecal aliquots were prepared for immediate culture, while further aliquots were stored at ?80��C prior to selleck chem inhibitor DNA extraction for qPCR and pyrosequencing. Culture and strain isolation Fresh fecal aliquots of 0.5�C1 g were used to prepare 10% (wet wt/vol) suspensions in pre-reduced anaerobic peptone water (Oxoid AG, Pratteln, Switzerland, supplemented with 0.5 g/L L-cysteine-HCl, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Buchs, Switzerland) and further serial 10-fold dilutions (vol/vol) of which 100 ��L of appropriate dilutions were plated in duplicate on two non-selective and seven selective agar media. Media targeting anaerobic gut-associated bacterial populations, bacteroides mineral salts agar for Bacteroides spp.

(using 5 g/L D-glucose as carbon source, VWR International, Dietikon, Switzerland) [32], Beerens agar for Bifidobacterium spp. [33], reinforced clostridial agar for members of the Clostridia [34] and Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe agar for total anaerobes (Oxoid; supplemented with 0.5 g/L L-cysteine-HCl, Sigma-Aldrich), were incubated in an anaerobic chamber. On the other hand, media targeting facultative anaerobic populations, MacConkey agar no2 for Enterobacteriaceae/Enterococcus spp. (Oxoid), mannitol salt agar for Staphylococcus spp. (Oxoid) and nutrient agar for total facultative anaerobes (Oxoid) were incubated aerobically; except for Lactobacillus anaerobic de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar with vancomycin and bromocresol green (LAMVAB) targeting Lactobacillus spp.

[35] and azide blood agar for gram-positive cocci/Streptococcus spp. (Oxoid), which were incubated in anaerobic jars. Plates were incubated for up to 14 days at 37��C and population levels were reported as log cfu/g feces. Based on different morphologies, a set of colonies was isolated per sample and medium, streaked for purity and cultured in liquid media, Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe broth for presumptive anaerobes (Oxoid; supplemented with 0.5 g/L L-cysteine-HCl, Sigma-Aldrich), tryptone soy broth for facultative anaerobes (Oxoid) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth for presumptive Lactobacillus spp. (Labo-Life S��rl, Pully, Switzerland; supplemented with 0.5 g/L L-cysteine-HCl, Sigma-Aldrich).

Brefeldin_A Purity was verified microscopically and finally viable isolates were maintained at ?80��C in a final concentration of 20% (vol/vol) glycerol, while centrifuged cells were stored at ?20��C until DNA extraction and subsequent Sanger sequencing. DNA extraction DNA was extracted from pure culture cell pellets using a Wizard Genomic DNA purification kit (Promega AG, D��bendorf, Switzerland), and total DNA was extracted from 0.1�C0.3 g of feces using a FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals, Illkirch, France) according to the manufacturers’ instructions.

- Count taken of gauze, scalpels, surgical needles and other surg

- Count taken of gauze, scalpels, surgical needles and other surgical instruments used. The scrub-room or operating theatre nurse is to make and confirm the count by speaking out loud. The surgical team is to be notified promptly else should there be discrepancies in the final count in order they may take the appropriate action. – Labelling of the surgical specimen (including name and description of patient). The operating room or theatre nurse is to confirm correct labelling of the surgical specimen by reading aloud both the name and description of the patient concerned. – Problems or failures in the use of devices: The coordinator is to ensure that no problems have arisen in the operation of all surgical devices. If so, such problem are to be promptly identified and reported so as to avoid further use or re-use of the said device before the problem has been resolved.

– Revision of critical elements for post-operative care: The coordinator is to confirm that the surgeon, anesthetist and nurses have reviewed all important issues and critical elements necessary to the correct handling of the post-operative patient while also focusing on any intra-operative or anesthetic problems that may adversely affect the course of post-operative recovery. – Postoperative thrombosis-embolism prophylaxis The coordinator is to ask the surgeon whether the plan for post-operative thrombosis-embolism prophylaxis has been prepared as per health organization procedure, early mobilization, compression devices, drugs.

The completed check-list may be placed in the patient��s medical records and/or filed for an assessment of the quality of surgical intervention carried out. Adaptation of the check-list for your organization Even on the basis of positive results presented in international medical papers, it has been recommended to the NHS to ensure implementation of the check-list in all operating rooms for health reasons, adapting to list to the particular characteristics of each health structure. Indeed, the check-list is not exhaustive but it is expandable with amendments and supplements based on specific local needs were foreseen. The removal of check-list items or points is recommended where these be motivated by circumstances that hinder implementation of the check-list – such as for example incompatibility within the work context (e.g.

the team does not fully appreciate or understand its usefulness). If special local needs or specific procedures make additional controls appropriate, additional items or points may be included while taking care at the same time that management and viability of the controls has not been made too complex (29). Conclusion ��We envision a Health Care system in which those who provide health care can derive satisfaction Entinostat from their work while those who receive health care, feel secure and have full confidence in the assistance they receive��. This thought of Donald M.

Detailed descriptions of our methodology

Detailed descriptions of our methodology compound library are presented elsewhere (Akers, Severson, Andrews, & Lichtenstein, 2007; Lichtenstein et al., 2002; Severson et al., 2000, 2007). Baseline characteristics of participants and their partners The 328 male participants in this secondary analysis had a mean age of 41.6 years (SD=11.5), 94.8% had at least a high school education (34.4% completed college), and they used an average of 3.7 tins or pouches of smokeless tobacco per week (SD=2.27). Their partners had similar age (M=41.1 years, SD=10.1) and education (40.2% completed college), and on average, they had been together for more than 15.6 years (SD=11.5). No partners used smokeless tobacco, although 12.5% were smokers. Measures Outcome measures.

Tobacco abstinence was measured using 7-day point prevalence self-report measures at 6 and 12 months as well as by repeated point prevalence (considering abstinence at both 6 and 12 months). Happiness in relationship and support for quitting. The partner baseline assessment included Item 31 from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; Spanier, 1976) that asked, ����indicate the degree of happiness, all things considered, of your relationship,�� using a 7-point scale (0=extremely unhappy, 1=fairly unhappy, 2=a little unhappy, 3=happy, 4=very happy, 5=extremely happy, and 6=perfect). Goodwin (1992) reported that DAS Item 31 could be used to differentiate between adjusted and distressed couples as indicated by total DAS. Moreover, the item has been incorporated in the four-item version of the Couples Satisfaction Index, for which psychometric properties have been reported by Funk and Rogge (2007).

Another baseline item asked partners, ��How much do you want him to quit chewing or dipping?�� (1=not at all, 4=somewhat, and 7=very much). Partner positive and negative support. At their 6-week assessment, partners reported how often they delivered support for quitting smokeless tobacco to their male companion, and study participants rated the frequency of smokeless tobacco quitting support they received from their female partner. The 6-week assessment occurred after tobacco cessation materials had been distributed to assess the effects of support during the initial stage of quitting. Measures of support were derived from the self-report Dacomitinib Partner Interaction Questionnaire (Cohen & Lichtenstein, 1990; Roski, Schmid, & Lando, 1996) that had been adapted for smokeless tobacco (cf. Lichtenstein et al., 2002).

The cell proliferation inhibitory effect of NS398 could be detect

The cell proliferation inhibitory effect of NS398 could be detected in our microarray analysis by causing cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, as described earlier (Hung promotion et al, 2000). This can be mediated not only by p27KIP1 (Hung et al, 2000) but also by p18-INK4C (CDKN2C) and CIP2 (CDKN3) overexpression (the latter ones showed more than a 4.5-fold overexpression under NS398 treatment in our study). The p53-inducible gene BTG2 (we found to be 4.6-fold upregulated in HT29 cells after NS398 treatment) also contributes to the anti-proliferative activity of NS398 through its inhibition effect to G(1)�CS transition by reduction of cyclin D1 levels (Guardavaccaro et al, 2000). The cell proliferation inhibitory effect of NS398 has also been proven in MTT assay.

The inhibition of COX2 by NS398 results in the accumulation of arachidonic acid in cancer cells and, therefore, would trigger apoptosis, but the mechanisms by which NSAIDs induce cancer cells to apoptosis can also be COX2 independent. In this study, a wide range of pro-apoptotic genes in different phases of apoptosis were found to be overexpressed under NS398 treatment including TRAIL death ligand (TNFSF10), SIVA1 death receptor in CD27-induced pathway and molecules involved in the execution phase of apopotosis such as the APAF1 apoptosome protein and CASP6 effector caspase. Death-associated kinase-3 (DAPK3) inducing morphological changes in apoptosis was also upregulated by NS398 in HT29 cells. In accordance with the findings of Li et al (2001), NS398-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells occurred through a cytochrome c-dependent pathway in our experiments.

We found that the activation of the p53-dependent pathway can also trigger apoptotic processes via the cytochrome c pathway. Overexpression of tumour protein p53-inducible nuclear protein-1 and tumour protein p53-inducible protein-3 pro-apoptotic molecules indicates p53-dependent apoptosis. p73, which can transactivate p53-responsive genes causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, is also upregulated under NS398 COX2 inhibitor treatment. Celecoxib also caused overexpression of p73 tumour-suppressor gene in prostate cancer in a randomised controlled phase II pre-surgical trial (Sooriakumaran et al, 2009). Although only few genes involved in angiogenesis showed significant mRNA expression changes, in accordance with observations of Abdelrahim and Safe (2005) and Huang et al (2005), we also detected the downregulation of VEGF, one of the most important angiogenic Carfilzomib factors, besides the underexpression of others such as PTEN and IL18.

With data from 2001 to 2008 in Texas (28,599 clients), 2005 to 20

With data from 2001 to 2008 in Texas (28,599 clients), 2005 to 2008 in Louisiana (13,861 clients), and 2006 to 2008 in DC (3,050 clients), we counted the number of African American clients and calculated their participation rate as a proportion of their numbers new within the state or district population of Quitline callers. Identification as African American was self-reported in standardized counseling intake interviews. The estimated number of smokers in each area and group was obtained using U.S. Census data and available data from behavioral risk surveys in each location. To investigate the effectiveness of quitline counseling among African Americans, data from a previously reported study were reanalyzed (Rabius, McAlister, Geiger, Huang, and Todd, 2004).

There were 3,522 participants, of which 528 (15%) were African Americans. Data on effectiveness are gathered through telephone interviews in a standardized protocol reported elsewhere (Rabius et al.). Deriving quit rates as recommended by the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC) (NAQC, 2009), the 30-day point prevalence of abstinence 7 months after program registration was calculated among African American and non-Hispanic White clients separately, with chi-square tests to determine the significance of differences in quitting rates. To examine quitting success among African American smokers who used the service in the two states and the District, data from clients enrolled during 2006�C2007 were analyzed. These included 1,237 African Americans and 3,972 non-Hispanic Whites in Texas, 1,679 African Americans and 3,275 non-Hispanic Whites in Louisiana, and 1,567 African Americans and 81 non-Hispanic Whites in DC.

The NAQC-recommended (NAQC, 2009), 30-day point prevalence at 7-month follow-up as a proportion of followed clients was calculated for each of these groups, and chi-square tests were performed to determine whether differences in quitting AV-951 rates were significant. Results In the two states and the District, African American smokers utilized the service at rates exceeding their proportion in the smoking population. In Texas, 18% of the clients were African Americans, from a smoking population in which only 9% are African Americans. The corresponding proportions are 33% and 26% in Louisiana, and 89% and 63% in DC. In all three locations, African Americans were significantly more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to request counseling: 74% versus 67% in Texas, p < .01; 79% versus 74% in Louisiana, p < .01; and 92% versus 85% in DC, p < .05. There were no significant differences in the average number of counseling sessions completed: 1.2 versus 1.2 in Texas, 1.1 versus1.2 in Louisiana, and 2.1 versus 2.4 in DC.

After applying this analysis, significant differences between the

After applying this analysis, significant differences between the two populations (healthy and breast cancer patients) were not find more observed for any of the antigens, as shown in the box graph in Figure 3. These results indicate that a simple average RLU determination of the data after logarithmic transformation and smoothing did not reveal differences between patients and healthy controls. We therefore applied a more sophisticated method of data analysis using the ratio concept and ��separation models�� based on relevant clinical, demographic, or epidemiological parameters. Figure 3 Box plots of average of log10 [RLU] of all antigens after the smoothing procedure. The two clinical groups are represented in the graph are breast cancer (filled bars) and healthy (empty bars).

No statistically significant separation could be achieved … Classification of different samples Before starting this second-tier analysis, we evaluated which relevant clinical or demographic parameter can be incorporated into the analysis. We checked the following parameters: age, menopausal status, and familial breast cancer history (as given by the patients verbally). We tested the distribution of these parameters between the two groups. Using the Mann-Whitney test for age gave a P < 0.0001, and Fisher��s exact test for menopause (P < 0.001) and for family history (P = 0.005) (see Table S7 B-D in Supplementary Data online Analysis of clinical variables as ��stand alone�� predictors, for detailed analysis). We only used age for the entire population and performed a separate analysis for post-menopausal women.

We did not use the family history parameter because this notion could not be rigorously defined, making it less reliable (the information is not always available to the subjects) and less significant. We also performed the logistic regression of the outcome (health status) on age and menopause. In this analysis, only age retained its significance (P < 0.001), while menopause became non-significant (P = 0.076) after age adjustment (see Table S7-A in Supplementary Data online��Analysis of clinical variables as ��stand alone�� predictors, for detailed analysis). To further use the AAbs results to discriminate between patient samples and control samples, we used logistic regression of the disease status (��patient�� or ��control��) on age and 4 antigens testing all possible combinations of 4 antigens out of 15.

A classification model is defined as the set of antigens, as well as clinical data (age), and their corresponding coefficients obtained after logistic regression is performed. All sub-sets of theoretical combinations of the antigens (ie, all classification Cilengitide models) were tested for their sensitivities at the level of 50% specificity. Models created with at least 80 samples, resulting in a specificity of at least 50%, were ranked according to their sensitivities.

At both 37 and 30 ��C, the initial transfection had no significan

At both 37 and 30 ��C, the initial transfection had no significant effect on HBsAg concentration in the culture supernatants. However, the second and third transfections had increasingly inhibitory effects on HBsAg secretion when cells were cultured under hypothermic conditions. As expected, Seliciclib FDA transfection of the C TALEN, which targets a different part of the HBV genome, did not affect HBsAg secretion (Figure 2c,dd). The P1 TALEN and P2 TALEN had modest or no inhibitory effect on HBsAg secretion from HepG2.2.15 cells respectively (Supplementary Figure 6, online). Figure 2 Expression and anti-HBV efficacy of TALENs in cultured cells. (a) Immunodetection of each of the L or R subunits of the S or C TALENs following plasmid transfection of cultured Huh7 cells. Representative fields under 400�� magnification are shown.

… TALEN-mediated targeted mutagenesis of cccDNA To assess targeted TALEN-mediated mutagenesis of cccDNA, circular duplex DNA that had been subjected to ATP-dependent DNase treatment was isolated from HepG2.2.15 cells. PCR-based analyses were initially carried out to assess contamination of the cccDNA sample with cellular genomic DNA and HBV rcDNA (Figure 3a,bb). To detect genomic DNA contamination, primer sets that amplify HBV C DNA or control cellular genomic sequences located in the A1AT gene were used. With the A1AT gene primers, DNA was efficiently amplified from cellular genomic DNA but not when using the cccDNA preparation as template (Figure 3a). Primers targeting the C sequence of HBV amplified DNA from both cccDNA and HepG2.2.15 cell genomic DNA preparations.

Efficiency of amplification was however considerably higher when using the cccDNA preparation as template. Amplification of HBV C sequences from the genomic template was expected, and is likely to be derived from stable HBV integrants within HepG2.2.15 cells. To verify removal of rcDNA, DNA prepared from serum of HBV transgenic mice21 using different procedures was subjected to amplification with S gene primers (Figure 3b). Serum from these mice does not contain cccDNA. Each extracted serum sample contained approximately 5��106 copies of HBV rcDNA, which is a threefold excess of the estimated number of rcDNA copies in the starting material derived from the HepG2.2.15 cells. An S gene amplicon was not detectable when using the serum-derived sample that was subjected to the method used for cccDNA preparation from HepG2.

2.15 cells. This procedure included cccDNA-enrichment and ATP-dependent DNase treatment. Collectively these data indicate that the cccDNA preparation used for the T7 endonuclease assays were not significantly contaminated with either cellular genomic DNA or HBV Brefeldin_A rcDNA. Figure 3 Targeted disruption of cccDNA extracted from HepG2.2.15 cells. (a) PCR analysis using A1AT or HBV C gene primer sets carried out on total genomic DNA or cccDNA isolated from HepG2.2.15 cells.

It is worth noting that HBV reactivation occurred after achieving

It is worth noting that HBV reactivation occurred after achieving MMR in the first case (Figure (Figure1A)1A) and after CCyR in the second case (Figure (Figure1B),1B), GNF-5? a similar condition as that in the report of Ikeda et al[7]. In the study of Mohamad et al[23], CML patients who were in complete molecular or cytogentic response after IM treatment restored function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which are crucial effectors in innate immunity. Therefore, the finding of hepatic flare after complete molecular or cytogenetic responses in the first two cases may provide evidence to support the hypothesis of immune-restoration stage of HBV reactivation. Furthermore, in the third case of our study, the hepatic flare occurred 5 mo before achieving CCyR (Figure (Figure1C).1C).

This finding suggests that nilotinib treatment might provoke a different pathway other than that of IM to achieve immune restoration. Further studies may be needed to explain this observation. An important issue that should be addressed is the preemptive therapy with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) in patients undergoing TKI therapy. Although preemptive treatment with NAs before immunosuppressive chemotherapy is recommended in European Association for the Study of the Liver Clinical Practice guidelines[24], there is no recommendation on whether NAs should be given in patients undergoing TKI therapy due to lack of prospective studies. In conclusion, this case report highlights the importance that HBV reactivation may occur in hematologic patients undergoing TKI therapy.

Once HBV reactivation is suspected during TKI treatment, early detection of HBV load and utilization of antiviral agent are suggested to achieve better clinical outcome. Footnotes P- Reviewer Piekarska A S- Editor Gou SX L- Editor A E- Editor Zhang DN
Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.

Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index Anacetrapib (DAI).

The AREST CF program has ethical approval from the Princess Marga

The AREST CF program has ethical approval from the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children ethics committee and all parents/legal guardians signed written consent prior to enrollment. Infant lung function testing Infant lung function testing was performed following oral chloral hydrate (60�C100 mg/kg) sedation. Multiple breath washout testing was performed as previously described by our group [11] and others [7], [8], [9], [23], [24] using 5% sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas using an ultrasonic flow meter (Ecomedics AG, Duerten, Switzerland). Assessments of lung volume using this technique have been reported to show acceptable agreement when compared to mass spectrometry [25].

Data were included for analysis if there was no evidence of leak or irregular breathing, corrected using an updated temperature model [7], [23], [24] and the effective dead space of the measurement apparatus and face mask [26]. Functional residual capacity (FRC), LCI and the first and second moment ratios (M1/M0 and M2/M0) were derived as reported previously [8], [27]. Chest CT and BAL The chest CT followed by BAL were performed under the same intravenous general anesthesia protocol as previously described [5], [22]. Limited dose three slice chest CT scans (100 kV and 40�C80 mAs) were obtained at a positive pressure of 25 cmH20 and end-expiration (0 cmH20). In March 2007 volumetric helical inspiratory scans (120 kv; 25 mAs; pitch 0.6; total radiation dose=0.74�C0.80 mSv) were introduced as the standard imaging technique, expiratory scans remained unchanged.

In those children with a helical scans, three slices equivalent to the chest CT limited scan were extracted using the scout film to identify the ��slices�� to exactly correspond to the anatomical landmarks used for the limited slice scans. This strategy was used to maximise the number of scans available to compare with MBW outcomes. Immediately following chest CT the bronchoscope was introduced into the lower airway and BAL obtained from three aliquots of 1 mL/kg of sterile saline instilled into the right middle lobe followed by a single instillation into lingual or worst lobe on radiology. The two first aliquots (one right, one lingual) were sent separately for microbiological assessment and the 2nd and 3rd right middle lobe aliquots pooled and processed within 1 hour for subsequent inflammatory analysis.

BAL samples were cultured by standard techniques and infection with a specific organism was considered as ��105 cfu/mL. Samples that cultured mixed oral flora (MOF) and isolated colonies <105 CFU/mL were classified as uninfected. Chest CT scoring Chest CT images were scored by a single experienced pediatric thoracic radiologist (C.M.) in six zones (upper, mid, and lower; right and left) as previously reported by our group [5], [22]. Carfilzomib The presence of bronchiectasis or air-trapping was recorded in a binary fashion for each abnormality for each zone.