This approach has value: some bog specialist butterflies have remarkable frequency of occurrence in northern Wisconsin bogs (Table 9). This faunistic similarity of specialists across these bogs may be particularly pronounced due to the long-term stability typical of this vegetation and remarkably pristine condition of these sites (see “Introduction”). “Characteristic” butterflies are frequently identified for “zones” or “biomes” (e.g., Layberry et al. 1998, pp 9–11); on that large scale, these
are typically “matrix” butterflies of a general vegetation type. But even in highly destroyed and fragmented tallgrass prairie, AZD6244 characteristic specialists (if in range) occurred in many examples of that vegetation (Speyeria selleck products idalia in Missouri and Minnesota, Oarisma poweshiek in Minnesota) (Swengel 1998b; Swengel and Swengel 1999a, 1999b). Thus, vegetative classifications are efficacious at grouping insects by their floristic associations (e.g., Panzer and Schwartz 1998; Shuey 2005). Confounding the fit of butterflies to vegetative classifications
is the single vegetative label typically assigned to a particular patch. Numerous non-specialist (non-tyrphobiontic) species associated with other types of vegetations occur in bogs (Table 2). In other words, a northern Wisconsin bog is also a heath that’s wet (Colias interior), a peaty sedge meadow (Satyrodes eurydice), a particularly LGX818 price damp grassland (Coenonympha tullia) or meadow (Boloria selene), and a forest however scraggly (Erynnis icelus, Speyeria atlantis). Even many tyrphobiontic species occur there not because it’s a bog (wetland) but because it’s adequately analogous climatically and vegetatively to taiga or tundra (Spitzer and Danks 2006). At the
central Wisconsin pine barrens (Bauer-Brockway) richest in specialist butterfly species in our study (Swengel 1998a), we can record (in season) in one small location specialists of grassland (Hesperia metea, Atrytonopsis hianna, H. leonardus) and savanna (Callophrys irus, C. henrici) as well as forest-specific species (Megisto cymela, Enodia anthedon) (Swengel Megestrol Acetate 2009). This is easily explained by the resource-based approach to defining habitat (Dennis and Eales 1997; Thomas et al. 2001; Dennis et al. 2007; Dennis 2010): each species finding the conditions and resources required. Conservation management decisions can foster or reduce this layering of vegetation types and associated insect diversity on top of each other (Kirby 1992). For example, tree-cutting can maintain a savanna (instead of grassland or forest) at the scale of a site but result in primarily grassland and forest subsites within that site (dissociating the grassland and forest butterflies, and leaving very little partially shaded vegetation for savanna butterflies) or maintain the mix throughout the site at the microsite scale.