Based on the evidence, this review summarizes our current knowledge of spontaneous MI and NOS. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2008; 18:275-279) (C) 2008, Elsevier Inc.”
“Following exposure to trauma, a vulnerable sub-population Cl-amidine of individuals develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with
characteristic persistent autonomic hyper-responsivity, associated increased startle response, and commonly altered hypothalamopituitary-adrenal regulation. A goal of this investigation was to identify a predictive marker for this vulnerability. Previous investigators have developed a model for PTSD in which male mice were exposed to a single brief episode of inescapable footshock followed by 1-min contextual reminders of this trauma at weekly intervals for 6 weeks. Exposure to these reminders induced a progressive and persistent increase in the amplitude of acoustic startle consistent with
the persistently increased acoustic startle of individuals exhibiting PTSD. We adapted this model to adult male Wistar rats, with added characterization of initial (pre-trauma) startle response. After one episode of inescapable footshock (10s, 2mA) or control treatment followed by six weekly 1-min contextual reminders, acoustic startle was re-tested. Data were analyzed after dividing rats within each treatment into LOW vs MID vs HIGH (33% in each group) pre-treatment startle responders.
Rats which exhibited pre-treatment LOW- and MID-range Selleckchem Dasatinib acoustic startle responses did not develop increased acoustic startle responses following subsequent traumatic stress+reminders ([TS+R]) treatment. Carbohydrate However, rats which exhibited HIGH pre-treatment startle responses exhibited further significant (p<0.01) [TS+R]induced persistent enhancement of this already elevated startle response. Furthermore, rats exhibiting HIGH pre-treatment startle responses were also the only subgroup which exhibited increased basal plasma corticosterone levels following [TS+R] treatment. These results suggest that initial pre-stress acoustic startle response can identify subgroups of rats which are predisposed to, or resistant to, developing a PTSD-like syndrome following subsequent trauma. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is predominantly viewed as the consequence of dysfunctional hyperactivity, plastic change, or synchronized oscillations in the central auditory system. An alternative to the current auditory-centric view of auditory phantom perception is the basal ganglia-centric view. Recent electrical stimulation experiments in area LC, a locus of the caudate nucleus positioned at its anterior body, has shown loudness modulation of existing tinnitus percepts.
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that auditory phantoms are gated by the dorsal striatum.
The Bland-Altman analysis showed excellent agreement between AFRNT and PRNT. AFRNT is a fully automatable high-throughput neutralisation assay, which can be performed with measles and other types of viruses, including wild-type strains. It is perfectly suited for epidemiological and vaccine studies. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The important role of dopamine (DA) in mediating feeding behavior and the positive reinforcing effects of some drugs is well recognized. Less widely studied is how feeding conditions might impact the sensitivity of drugs acting on DA systems. Food restriction, for example, has often been the focus of aging and longevity studies; however,
other studies have demonstrated that mild ARN-509 research buy food restriction markedly increases sensitivity to direct- and indirect-acting DA receptor agonists. Moreover, it is becoming clear that not only NCT-501 the amount of food, but the type of food, is an important factor in modifying the effects of drugs. Given the increased consumption of high fat and sugary foods, studies are exploring how consumption of highly palatable food impacts DA neurochemistry and the effects of drugs acting on these systems. For example,
eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to some behavioral effects of direct- as well as indirect-acting DA receptor agonists. A compelling mechanistic possibility is that central DA pathways that mediate the effects of some drugs are regulated by one or more of the endocrine hormones (e.g. insulin) that undergo marked changes during food restriction or after consuming high fat or sugary foods. Although traditionally recognized as an important signaling molecule in regulating energy homeostasis, insulin can also regulate DA neurochemistry. Because direct- and indirect-acting DA receptor drugs are used therapeutically and some are abused, a better understanding of how food intake impacts response to these drugs would likely facilitate improved treatment of clinical disorders
and provide information PD184352 (CI-1040) that would be relevant to the causes of vulnerability to abuse drugs.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Central Control of Food Intake’. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Over the past 30 years hemispheric asymmetries in speech perception have been construed within a domain-general framework, according to which preferential processing of speech is due to left-lateralized, non-linguistic acoustic sensitivities. A prominent version of this argument holds that the left temporal lobe selectively processes rapid/temporal information in sound. Acoustically, this is a poor characterization of speech and there has been little empirical support for a left-hemisphere selectivity for these cues. In sharp contrast, the right temporal lobe is demonstrably sensitive to specific acoustic properties.
Our results show that otherwise disparate developmental neurotoxicants converge on common cellular pathways governing the acquisition and programmed death of neural cells, providing a specific link to cell deficits. Our studies suggest that identifying the initial
mechanism of action of a developmental neurotoxicant may be strategically less important than focusing on the pathways that converge on common final outcomes such as cell loss. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins CHIR-99021 cost 1, 2, and 3, which contain four CCCH zinc finger motifs (ZF1-4), are involved in the differentiation of muscle inclusion by controlling the splicing patterns of several pre-mRNAs. Especially, MBNL1 plays a crucial role in myotonic dystrophy. The CCCH zinc finger is a sequence motif found in many RNA binding proteins and is suggested to play an important role in the recognition of RNA molecules. Here, we solved CYT387 the solution structures of both tandem zinc finger (TZF) motifs, TZF12 (comprising ZF1 and ZF2) and TZF34 (ZF3 and ZF4), in MBNL2 from Homo sapiens.
In TZF12 of MBNL2, ZF1 and ZF2 adopt a similar fold, as reported previously for the CCCH-type zinc fingers in the TIS11d protein. The linker between ZF1 and ZF2 in MBNL2 forms an antiparallel beta-sheet with the N-terminal extension of ZF1. Furthermore, ZF1 and ZF2 in MBNL2 interact with each other through hydrophobic interactions. Consequently, TZF12 forms a single, compact global fold, where ZF1 and ZF2 are RG7420 datasheet approximately symmetrical about the C2 axis. The structure of the second tandem zinc finger (TZF34) in MBNL2 is similar to that of TZF12. This novel three-dimensional structure of the TZF domains in MBNL2 provides a basis for functional studies of the CCCH-type zinc finger motifs in the MBNL protein family.”
“We generated four HIV-1 cultures that are resistant to a peptide fusion inhibitor corresponding to the first heptad repeat of gp41 in order to study mechanisms of resistance and gain insights into envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane
fusion. Two genetic pathways emerged that were defined by acquisition of a specific mutation in either the first or second heptad repeat region of gp41 (HR1 or the HR2, respectively). Each pathway was enriched in mutations that clustered in either HR2 and V3 or in HR1 and residues in or near CD4 contact sites. The gp41 mutations in both pathways not only accounted for resistance to the selecting HR1 peptide but also conferred cross-resistance to HR2 peptide fusion inhibitors and enhanced the stability of the six-helix bundle formed by the self-assembly of HR1 and HR2. The gp120 mutations alone enhanced fusion but did not appear to directly contribute to resistance. The implications of these findings for resistance mechanisms and regulation of envelope-mediated fusion are discussed.”
“Mitochondria possess a complex architecture with two membranes.
of IL6-R alpha continues during the period of remyelination, suggesting that IL6-R alpha might be involved in both Schwann selleck chemical cell proliferation and remyelination of the rat sciatic nerve. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutants that fail to express the viral immediate-early protein ICP0 have a pronounced defect in viral gene expression and plaque formation in limited-passage human fibroblasts. ICP0 is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that induces the degradation of several cellular proteins. PML, the organizer of cellular nuclear substructures known as PML nuclear bodies or ND10, is one of the most notable proteins that is targeted by ICP0. Depletion of PML from human fibroblasts increases ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 gene expression, but not to wild-type levels. In this study, we report that depletion of Sp100, another major ND10 protein, results in a
similar increase in ICP0-null mutant gene expression and that simultaneous depletion of both proteins complements the mutant virus to a greater degree. Although chromatin assembly and modification undoubtedly SC79 datasheet play major roles in the regulation of HSV-1 infection, we found that inhibition of histone deacetylase activity with trichostatin A was unable to complement the defect of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 in either normal or PML-depleted human fibroblasts. These data lend further weight to the hypothesis that ND10 play an important role in the regulation of HSV-1 gene expression.”
aimed to clarify changes in the spatial expressions of types 1, 2 and 3 ryanodine receptors (RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3) in the cerebellum of a Ca2+ channel alpha(1A) Fludarabine subunit mutant, rolling mouse Nagoya. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the mRNA signal levels of RyR1 and RyR3 were altered in the rolling cerebellum, which exhibited lower densities of RyR1 bands and higher densities of RyR3 bands than in the control cerebellum. Quite consistent with the RT-PCR results, the staining intensity of RyR1 and RyR3 was altered in the rolling cerebellum. RyR1 immunostaining appeared in somata and the proximal dendrites of Purkinje cells, and the staining intensity of both subcellular regions was equally lower in all cerebellar lobules of rolling mice than in those of controls. Although RyR3 immunostaining appeared in the dendrites of granule cells, more intense RyR3 staining in rolling mice than in controls was uniformly observed throughout all cerebellar lobules. The present study further examined co-localizations of ryanodine receptor subtypes and voltage-gated Ca2+ channel alpha(1) subunits in the rolling cerebellum. Somatodendritic RyR1 immunostaining in Purkinje cells overlapped with either a mutated Ca2+ channel alpha(1A) subunit (P/Q-type), or a Ca2+ channel alpha(1C) subunit (L-type; dihydropyridine receptor) immunostaining.
In research this questionnaire could be used to recalibrate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in children.”
“Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we show correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following
responses were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from frequency-following responses correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major > minor > > diminished > augmented). Moreover, neural response CB-839 nmr magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners’ perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that preattentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony. NeuroReport selleck chemicals 22:212-216 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Purpose: We evaluated the effect of solifenacin for urinary incontinence in children with overactive/neurogenic bladder refractory to oxybutynin or tolterodine.
Materials and Methods: Pediatric patients presenting with
refractory overactive bladder with incontinence were offered the opportunity to enter a prospective, open label protocol using adjusted dose regimens of 1.25 to 10 mg solifenacin. Study inclusion criteria were absent correctable neurological
Ibrutinib in vivo anomalies on magnetic resonance imaging, failure of symptoms to improve on intensive behavioral and medical (oxybutynin or tolterodine) therapy, and/or significant side effects of those agents. Followup consisted of a voiding diary, post-void residual urine measurement, urine culture, ultrasound and urodynamics. Families were questioned about continence, side effects, compliance, behavior change and quality of life. The primary end point was efficacy for continence and secondary end points were tolerability and safety.
Results: Enrolled in the study were 42 girls and 30 boys. Of the patients 27 with neurogenic bladder, of whom 11 were on clean intermittent catheterization, and 45 with overactive bladder completed a minimum 3-month followup. Patients were on solifenacin a mean of 15.6 months. Mean age at study initiation was 9.0 years. Mean +/- SD urodynamic capacity improved from 146 +/- 64 to 311 +/- 123 ml and uninhibited contractions decreased from 70 +/- 29 to 20 +/- 19 cm H(2)O (p < 0.01). Continence improved in all patients, including 24 who were dry, and 42 and 6 who were significantly and moderately improved, respectively. Of the patients 50 reported no side effects while 15 had mild and 3 had moderate side effects. Four patients withdrew from the protocol due to intolerable side effects.
However, microglia activation is reduced. Quantitative analysis of gliosis-associated gene expression alterations demonstrated reduced mRNA levels for a number of proinflammatory factors in CXCR3(-/-) compared to wild-type mice, indicating a weaker inflammatory response in the knockout mice. Taken together, this murine prion model identifies CXCR3 as disease-modifying host factor and indicates that inflammatory glial responses may act in concert with PrP(Sc) in disease development. Selonsertib supplier Moreover, the results indicate that targeting CXCR3 for treatment of prion infections could prolong survival times, but the results also raise the concern that
impairment of microglial migration by ablation or inhibition of CXCR3 could result in increased accumulation of misfolded PrP(Sc).”
“Activation of GABA(B) receptors by the selective
agonist baclofen produces anti-nociceptive effects in animal models of somatic pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of baclofen and the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator CGP7930 on pseudo-affective responses to colorectal distension in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repeated, noxious colorectal distension (CRD) (12 distensions at 80 mmHg, for 30 s with Repotrectinib price 5 min intervals). The visceromotor response (VMR) and cardiovascular responses (mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR)) to CRD were monitored in conscious, telemetrized animals. Baclofen (0.3-3 mu mol/kg, i.v.) reduced the VMR to CRD dose-dependently, reaching a 61% maximal inhibition (p < 0.001). The highest doses of baclofen attenuated CRD-evoked increases in ABP by 17% (p > 0.05) and reduced the change
in HR by 48% (p < 0.01). CGP7930 (3-30 mu mol/kg, i.v.) reduced the VMR to CRD in a dose-dependent fashion with a maximal inhibition of 31 % (p < 0.05). The highest dose of CGP7930 also attenuated the increase in ABP by 18% (p > 0.05) and inhibited the increase in HR by 24% (p < 0.05) associated with CRD. Neither baclofen nor CGP7930 affected colorectal compliance. The results suggest that activation of GABAB receptors produces antinociceptive effects in a rat model of mechanically induced visceral Glutathione peroxidase pain. While CGP7930 was less efficacious than baclofen overall, positive allosteric modulation of GABAB receptors may represent a valid approach in the treatment of visceral pain conditions, with the possibility of an improved safety profile compared to full agonism. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus possess three closely spaced, highly conserved sites for N-linked carbohydrate attachment in the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein gp41.
On the other hand, additional superior occurrence of motif pairs at a structurally important distance of a single DNA thread was found in the conserved domain (cd00099) related sequences of Elasmobranchii origin and less markedly in the corresponding human rIgV, but not in a randomly selected human subset of rIgV. The data are discussed with respect to statistical evaluation and structural properties of hypermutation motifs or the competent enzyme, i.e. see more activation-induced cytidine deaminase. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for crop protection based on their selective actions on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
(insect nAChRs). Loops C and D in insect nAChRs have been shown to possess structural features favorable for neonicotinoid-nACh R interactions. However, it remains to be resolved whether such features serve either co-operatively, or independently, to enhance neonicotinoid sensitivity of nAChRs. We therefore examined using voltage-clamp electrophysiology the effects on the response to imidacloprid of combinatorial this website substitutions of residues in loops C and D of the chicken alpha 4 beta 2 nAChR by those present in insect
nAChRs. The E219P mutation in loop C of the alpha 4 subunit resulted in enhanced responses to imidacloprid of alpha 4 beta 2, whereas E219S and E219T mutations barely influenced its actions. On the other hand, mutations in loop D (T77R; E79V and T77N; E79R) alone shifted the imidacloprid concentration-response curve to the left (lower concentrations). Interestingly, all three mutations did, however, further enhance the agonist efficacy of imidacloprid when combined with the mutations in loop D. Such synergistic effects of the two loops on the interactions with imidaclprid
were observed irrespective of subunit Ketotifen stoichiometry. Computational modeling of the ligand binding domain of the wild-type and mutant alpha 4 beta 2 nAChRs using the crystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis also indicated that interactions with loop F of loops C and D may contribute to determining the response to imidacloprid. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The theoretical underpinning of our struggle with vector-borne disease, and still our strongest tool, remains the basic reproduction number, R-0, the measure of long term endemicity. Despite its widespread application, R-0 does not address the dynamics of epidemics in a model that has an endemic equilibrium. We use the concept of reactivity to derive a threshold index for epidemicity, E-0, which gives the maximum number of new infections produced by an infective individual at a disease free equilibrium. This index describes the transitory behavior of disease following a temporary perturbation in prevalence.
In the bronchiolar epithelium of Elf3-/- mice, there was a substantial delay in the kinetics of cell proliferation and mitosis along with Clara cell renewal, whereas in the peribronchiolar interstitium, there was a significantly greater level of cell proliferation and mitosis in Elf3-/- mice than in Elf3+/+ mice. Last, the intensity of immunopositive signal for transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor, which is a well-known transcriptional target
gene of Elf3 and involved in the induction of epithelial cell differentiation, was significantly lower in the bronchiolar epithelium of Elf3-/- mice when compared with Elf3+/+ mice. Taken together, our results suggest that Elf3 plays an important role in the regulation of lung cell proliferation and differentiation AG-120 in vivo during repair of the Pexidartinib injured bronchiolar airway epithelium. Laboratory Investigation (2011) 91, 1514-1529; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2011.100; published online 27 June 2011″
“DNA-binding domains (DBDs) are essential components of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). We have investigated the distribution of all known DBDs in more than 500 completely sequenced genomes from the three major superkingdoms (Bacteria,
Archaea and Eukaryota) and documented conserved and specific DBD occurrence in diverse taxonomic lineages. By combining DBD occurrence in different species with taxonomic information, we have developed an automatic method for inferring the origins of DBD families and their specific combinations with other protein families in TFs. We found only three out of 131 (2%) DBD families shared by the three superkingdoms.”
“Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) can regulate cell apoptosis and proliferation. It has been shown that TERT expression can be induced in models of adult brain ischemia. In the present study, we investigated buy Erlotinib the role of TERT in ischemic neuronal death in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rats model. Postnatal day 10 Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model and hypoxia alone (H) model.
Pups were killed at 4, 8, 12, 24, or 48 h after the insult. Plasmid containing mock, TERT antisense or sense fragment mixed with Fugene HD was injected to the right lateral ventricle immediately after the insult respectively. Additional injection was performed after 24 h. Pups were sacrificed 24 h after the administration. TERT and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) expression were measured by Western blot. Apoptotic cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. We found that H/HI treatment induced neuronal apoptosis and expression of TERT and CC3. However, TERT was higher in H than in HI pups whereas CO and apoptosis were opposite, TERT antisense plasmid markedly attenuated TERT expression induced by HI, upregualted CC3 expression, and increased apoptosis.
(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Falls are common in older people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are likely to be related to gait disturbances associated with the condition. Although several Studies have evaluated differences in basic gait parameters in people with PD, none have directly evaluated the stability of the upper body during gait.
Methods. Temporospatial gait parameters and acceleration LY294002 mouse patterns at the head and pelvis were measured in three groups of older people: 33 controls without PD (mean age 67 +/- 4 years), 33 older people with PD and no history of falls (mean age 63 +/- 4 years),
and 33 older people with PD and a history of falls CB-5083 mouse (mean age 67 +/- 2 years). Harmonic ratios of head and pelvis accelerations in each plane were calculated to provide an indicator Of upper body stability.
Compared with the control group, older people with PD exhibited significantly reduced walking speed and step length and increased step timing variability. Acceleration patterns were also significantly less rhythmic at the head and pelvis in all three planes. After adjusting for differences in walking speed and step timing variability, PD fallers exhibited significantly less rhythmic accelerations at the pelvis in the vertical and anteroposterior planes than PD nonfallers.
Conclusions. Acceleration patterns during gait differ between older people with and without PD and between older people with PD Who do and do not fall. These findings Thalidomide suggest that an inability to control displacements of the torso when walking may predispose older people with PD to falls.”
“Choice is highly valued in modern society, from the supermarket to the hospital; however, it remains unknown whether older and younger adults place the same value on increased choice. The current investigation tested whether
53 older (M age = 75.44 years) versus 53 younger adults (M age = 19.58 years) placed lower value on increased choice by examining the monetary amounts they were willing to pay for increased prescription drug coverage options-important given the recently implemented Medicare prescription drug program. Results indicate that older adults placed lower value on increasing choice sets relative to younger adults, who placed progressively higher value on increasingly larger choice sets. These results are discussed regarding their implications for theory and policy.”
“We investigated the immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL) in the brain of the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in order to clarify the interaction between these neuropeptide hormones in the brain. NPY-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were observed in the ventral and lateral regions of the ventral telencephalon (Vv and VI, respectively), and in the dorsolateral midbrain tegmentum.
78, P = .002 and R = 0.69, P = .009, respectively). The normalized RV power output had a significant www.selleckchem.com/products/Acadesine.html negative correlation with RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (both R = -0.87, P = .002 and R = -0.68, P = .023, respectively). A rapid decrease occurred in the RV power capacity with an increasing RV volume, with the
curve flattening out at an indexed RVend-diastolic and end-systolic volume threshold of 139 mL/m(2) and 75 mL/m(2), respectively.
Conclusions: Significant power loss is present in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation. A rapid decrease in efficiency occurs with increasing RV volume, suggesting that pulmonary valve replacement should be done before the critical value of 139 mL/m(2) and 75 mL/m(2) for the RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, respectively, to preserve RV function. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:1279-85)”
“We investigated the effect of two well characterized preclinical animal models of depression – repeated injections
of corticosterone (CORT) and repeated restraint stress – on markers of GABAergic and glutamatergic activity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Stress is an identified risk factor for the onset of major depression, but the neurobiological mechanisms by which stress may produce depressogenic effects are not clear. Rats received one of the following this website four treatments for 21 consecutive days: daily GPX6 single CORT injections (40 mg/kg), daily single vehicle injections,
daily 6 h of restraint stress, or daily handling. After the 21-day stress period, all rats were sacrificed and hippocampal and amygdalar tissue was collected and prepared for Western blot analyses. We examined the effect of CORT and restraint stress on glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-65 and GAD67, as well as the alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and beta 2-3 GABA(A) receptor subunits, and the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)-2. We found that CORT significantly decreased GAD65 and the alpha 2 receptor subunit and increased VGLUT2 within the hippocampus. We also found that CORT decreased GAD67 and the alpha 2 receptor subunit in the amygdala. However, restraint stress had no significant effect on protein expression in either the hippocampus or the amygdala. These findings parallel our previous results showing that repeated CORT injections, but not restraint stress, increase depression-like behavior in rats, and suggest that the depressogenic effects of CORT may be related to alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in stress-sensitive regions of the brain. (c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in bottom-up proteomic analyses.