The use of cytokine gene therapy combined with suicide gene/prodr

The use of cytokine gene therapy combined with suicide gene/prodrug can enhance bystander effect by reinforcing immune function. Chen et al. [29] injected recombined

adenovirus expressed both IL-2 gene and HSV-tk gene to colon carcinoma model with hepatic metastasis, and found that the link of tk gene and IL-2 possess was more sufficient than individual gene therapy. We demonstrated that the therapy of a combining suicide gene (HSV-tk and MCP-1) significantly improved the antitumor efficiency Selleck Foretinib on SKOV3 cells by bicistronic recombinant replication-defective retroviruses vector pLXSN/tk-MCP-1 constructed in our lab. The bicistronic pLXSN co-expressing tk and MCP-1 linked by a bicistronic unit including poliomyelitis virus IRES was designed by proteinaceous translation initiation model inside chain of eukaryotic cell. The single upstream promoter can transcribe the same mRNA from two genes, and then the gene in the upstream

is translated in eukaryocyte cap-dependent manner, while the downstream gene can be translated and expressed under selleck products the control of IRES in cap-independent manner, avoiding the influence on expression of the two genes at the regulation level of transcription. The maximum concentration of MCP-1 and the result of chemotactic index of MCP-1-mediated migration showed that SKOV3/tk-MCP-1 could secrete MCP-1 possessed chemotactic activity. Furthermore, Metformin research buy our study showed a

strong bystander effect was observed in the system of SKOV3/tk-MCP-1 + GCV. MCP-1 is one of the major chemoattractants for mononuclear macrophage which can directly eradicate tumor cells, the selleckchem importance is MCP-1 significantly induced a low survival rate when transduced cells and untransduced cells are cultured together in specific ratios as a immuno-modulator. Boosted bystander effect by immunal inflammatory system showed 10% tk + can induce a 70% tumor cells death rate. Combined HSV-tk with MCP-1 gene therapy is a powerful approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer. They not only could play their antitumor role respectively, but also could creat synergistic action which could enhance the anti-tumor immune reactions. Many immune effector cells aggregate to tumor site via the expression of MCP-1 activity and provoke nonspecific immune reaction and specific immunity, not only boosting the cytotoxic effect of GCV but also enhancing immune reaction to reinforce the bystander effect. In order to explore the synergic antineoplastic mechanism and the influence on tumorous biological behavior of combined HSV-tk and MCP-1 gene, we investigated apoptosis and cell cycle.

Geochem T 7:7 doi:10 ​1186/​1467-4866-7-7 CrossRef Hørder M (197

Geochem T 7:7. doi:10.​1186/​1467-4866-7-7 CrossRef Hørder M (1974) Complex formation of inorganic pyrophosphate with magnesium: the influence

of ionic strength, supporting medium and temperature. Biochim Biophys Acta 358:319–328 Hsiao CL, Mohan S, Kalahar BK, Williams LD (2009) Peeling the onion: check details ribosomes are ancient molecular fossils. Mol Biol Evol 26:2415–2425PubMedCrossRef Huber C, Eisenreich W, Hecht S, Wächtershäuser G (2003) A possible primordial peptide cycle. PF-6463922 mw Science 301:938–940PubMedCrossRef Hulme SM, Wheat CG, Fryer P, Mottl MJ (2010) Pore water chemistry of the Mariana serpentinite mud volcanoes: a window to the seismogenic zone. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11, doi:10.​1029/​2009GC002674 Karl DM, Tien G (1992) SNX-5422 chemical structure MAGIC: a sensitive and precise method for measuring dissolved phosphorus in aquatic environments. Limnol Oceanogr 37:105–111CrossRef Kasting JF, Holm NG (1992) What determines the volume of the oceans? Earth Planet Sci Lett 109:507–515PubMedCrossRef Keefe AD, Miller SL (1995) Are polyphosphates or phosphate esters

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Step-wise decline in 16S rRNA level was accompanied by reduction

Step-wise decline in 16S rRNA level was accompanied by reduction in the number of infected cells (1 and 20 μM mevastatin), as well as the appearance of “”aberrant”" chlamydial forms (20 μM mevastatin) until complete eradication of chlamydial growth takes place (40 μM mevastatin).

Euo mRNA level has been changing in a similar manner, except inconsistent increase seen at 20 μM concentration of mevastatin. However, it is known that euo mRNA can be highly induced when the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis in cultured cells is compromised by addition of cytokines and other substances affecting chlamydial growth [28]. It has been proposed, that increased expression of euo may inhibit transcription of the genes specific for “”late phase”" of chlamydial developmental cycle [28, 29]. Thus, enhanced transcription rate of euo may represent self-sufficient mechanism predetermining anti-chlamydial activity of mevastatin. It is also important to conclude, that according to our results Selleck RG-7388 mevastatin has no effect on initial interaction of chlamydial particles

with host cell, allowing the entry of the pathogen into hepatocytes. Therefore we find more assume that later stages of chlamydial developmental cycle are affected by mevastatin treatment. The effect of different metabolites and inhibitors of mevalonate pathway needs to be tested in hepatocytes infected with C. trachomatis in presence of mevastatin. It is possible, that anti-chlamydial activity of mevastatin takes place due to reduced geranylgeranylation of host cell proteins as it happens in case of lovastatin-treated hepatocytes infected with hepatitis C virus [30]. Conclusions We have demonstrated that ongoing cholesterol synthesis is essential for chlamydial growth in hepatocytes. Although the precise mechanism of anti-chlamydial activity of mevastatin remains to be elucidated, RVX-208 targeting the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway may represent an effective strategy in management of chlamydial infection. Acknowledgements Ms Agni Roce is appreciated for invaluable help during experimental work and manuscript preparation. References

1. Baguley S, Greenhouse P: Non-genital manifestations of Chlamydia trachomatis . Clinical Medicine 2003, 3: 206–208.PubMed 2. Yang JL, Hong KC, Schachter J, Moncada J, Lekew T, House JI, Zhou Z, Neuwelt MD, Rutar T, Halfpenny C, Shah N, Whitcher JP, Lietman TM: Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection in trachoma-endemic communities by rRNA amplification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009, 50: 90–94.CrossRefPubMed 3. Kobayashi S, Kida I: Reactive arthritis: recent advances and clinical manifestations. Intern Med 2005, 44: 408–412.CrossRefPubMed 4. Bilenki L, Wang S, Yang J, Fan Y, Joyee AG, Yang X: Chlamydia trachomatis NK T cell activation promotes infection in vivo. J Immunol 2005, 175: 3197–3206.PubMed 5.

Then, Zn vapor was generated through the carbothermal reduction o

Then, Zn vapor was generated through the carbothermal reduction of ZnO powder at high temperature. The Zn vapor was carried to a low-temperature region by the flow of Ar gas, and the result was the condensation of Zn microcrystals onto the Si substrate located downstream.

The zinc microcrystals had AICAR nmr the morphology of hexagonally shaped platelets. Second, in the O2 environment that existed during the oxidation process, the as-grown Zn microcrystals were transformed into sheets with side faces that were flat [14]. The oxidation of Zn was caused by the increased surface mobility of the nanosized, liquid Zn droplets and oxygen atoms, which induced the nucleation and growth of ZnO crystals into nanowires. The side face of each flat plane was covered with armlike nanowire structures, hence the name ‘urchin-like’ microstructures. Figure 3 shows the μ-PL spectra of the Zn/ZnO microcrystals (solid line) and urchin-like ZnO microstructures (dashed line). The PL spectrum of the urchin-like ZnO microstructures shows an excitonic UV emission centered at 382 nm and a relatively weak emission associated with defects located at 522 nm. The intensity of the UV emission is five times greater than that of the as-grown selleck screening library sample. The appearance of

the UV emission from these microcrystals indicates that the Zn, which can be oxidized quickly, has been partially oxidized to form a thin ZnO layer on the surface. A blue shift in the UV band can be interpreted by the quantum confined effect to indicate that the thickness of the native oxide on the surface is just a few nanometers. Figure 3 Micro-PL Megestrol Acetate spectra of the sample before and after oxidation by cw-laser excitation. Next, we concentrated on the selleck chemical lasing characteristics of the individual urchin-like ZnO microstructures. Figure 4a shows a typical excitation-dependent μ-PL measurement of a ZnO microstructure with a size of 6.15 μm. The broad emission centered at 381 nm had no remarkable features at low excitation densities. As the excitation density increased, sharp peaks were observed at 379.5, 380.8, 382.5, and 383.8 nm. Furthermore, the peak intensities increased

rapidly with further increases in the excitation density. The sharp PL emissions and nonlinear increase in the PL intensities with the excitation density indicated that lasing action was occurring, and the lasing threshold density was approximately 0.94 MW/cm2, as shown in the inset of Figure 4a. The width of the spectral line of the lasing peak was less than 0.15 nm. Therefore, the cavity mode had an intrinsically high quality (Q) factor, which was estimated to be 2,500 using the equation Q = λ/δλ, where λ is the peak wavelength. This Q factor was higher than those of other ZnO nano/microstructures [25, 26]. The quality factor (Q) of the lasing spectra was estimated to be approximately 2,500, which was higher than that of our expectation.

Gene symbol Gene name GO CCL21B chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21b

Gene symbol Gene name GO CCL21B chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21b (serine) 1–2 CD276 CD276 antigen 1–2 SPP1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 1–2 CD24 CD24 antigen 1 C1QG complement component 1, q subcomponent, gamma polypeptide 1 CD74 CD74 antigen 1 HLA-DMA major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha 1 HLA-DMB major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta 1 DEFB1 defensin beta 1 1 FCGR3 Fc receptor, IgG, low affinity III 1 PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 1 PRNP prion protein 1 RT1-BA RT1 class II, locus Ba 1 RT1-CE5 RT1 class I, CE5 1

RT1-DA RT1 class II, locus Da 1 RT1-DB1 RT1 class II, locus Db1 1 RT1-BB RT1 class II, locus Bb 1 ANXA1 annexin A1 2 FABP4 fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte 2 S100A8 S100 calcium binding protein A8 2 S100A9 S100 calcium PF-6463922 binding protein A9 2 CDC2A cell division cycle 2 homolog A 3 EGR1 early growth response 1 3 CRYAB crystallin, alpha B 3 CCND1 Wortmannin cyclin D1 3 CD36 cd36 antigen 3 GCLC glutamate-cysteine MS-275 molecular weight ligase, catalytic subunit 3 GGT1 gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 3 GPX2 glutathione peroxidase 2 3 GPX3 glutathione peroxidase 3 3 GSR glutathione reductase 3 GSS glutathione synthetase 3 HSPCB heat shock 90 kDa protein 1, beta 3 LAMC1 laminin, gamma 1 3 MTAP2 microtubule-associated

protein 2 3 NOL3 nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain) 3 NQO1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 3 PDLIM1 PDZ and LIM domain 1 (elfin) 3 SLC25A4 solute carrier family 25 3 TXNRD1 thioredoxin reductase 1 3 NOTE: The numbers from 1–3 indicate immune response, inflammatory response and oxidative stress, respectively. Table 5 The down-regulated DEGs sharing from cirrhosis to metastasis stage relating to the following GO process. Gene Symbol Gene Title Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK GO C5 complement component 5 1–2 IL4RA interleukin 4 receptor, alpha 1–2 MBL2 mannose binding lectin 2 (protein C) 1–3 NOX4 NADPH oxidase 4 2–3 ATRN Attractin 2–3 C1S complement component 1, s subcomponent 1 C4BPB complement component 4 binding protein, beta 1 AZGP1 alpha-2-glycoprotein 1, zinc 1 C6 complement component 6 1 CXCL12 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12

1 MX2 myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2 1 OAS1 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, 40/46 kDa 1 RT1-S3 RT1 class Ib, locus S3 1 VIPR1 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 1 APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II 2 BCL6_predicted B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (predicted) 2 KLKB1 kallikrein B, plasma 1 2 PROC protein C 2 PTGER3 Prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) 2 MEOX2 mesenchyme homeobox 2 3 CA3 carbonic anhydrase 3 3 ABCB11 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11 3 ALAD aminolevulinate, delta-, dehydratase 3 CYP2E1 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily e, polypeptide 1 3 EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor 3 HAO1 hydroxyacid oxidase 1 3 HNF4A Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha 3 NOTE: The numbers from 1–3 indicate immune reponse, inflammatory response and oxidative stress, respectively.

al , [39] A close examination of the gene encoding Rv3623 reveal

al., [39]. A close examination of the gene encoding Rv3623 revealed that it is 207 bp shorter with a deletion in the N-terminal region that includes the signal peptide and the predicted lipo-box in the genomic sequences of M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. bovis BCG Pasteur 1173P2. The gene is annotated to encode a lipoprotein in the M. bovis strains even though the lipo-box is missing and it is therefore questionable whether

it should be considered as a lipoprotein in M. bovis. The identification of this protein with 7 peptides covering 34% of its sequence in M. tuberculosis H37Rv suggests that it is a major lipoprotein. The two lipoproteins listed in Table 3, annotated as “”periplasmic phosphate-binding lipoprotein”" (Rv0932c) is a known antigen [44] that also induces antibody responses in tuberculosis patients [45]. The 19 kDa lipoprotein antigen precursor (Rv3763) BYL719 mouse have been extensively studied due to its immunogenic properties [46–49]. Enrichment and analysis AZD5153 in vivo of lipoproteins with respect to humoral and cell-mediated immunity in infected individuals might ultimately lead to the identification of additional antigens that can serve as

biomarkers for M. tuberculosis infection. Conclusion In summary, we have enriched and extracted membrane- and membrane-associated proteins from M. tuberculosis H37Rv using Triton X-114, and identified the largest number of this subset of proteins reported so far. Further analysis of the data obtained in this study with bioinformatic tools suggests that several of these proteins are major membrane

proteins. We have described one major lipoprotein of M. tuberculosis which has become a pseudogene by the RD9 deletion in M. bovis. Methods Preparation Janus kinase (JAK) of crude bacterial extracts The mycobacterial reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294), used in this study was kindly provided by Dr Harleen Grewal, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. The bacilli were cultured on Middelbrook 7H10 agar plates with OADC enrichment (BD Difco) at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 3-4 weeks. Bacterial colonies were harvested by using an extraction buffer consisting of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4 with freshly added Roche Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Complete, EDTA-free, Roche Gmbh, Germany). Six hundred μl of this extraction buffer was added to each agar plate and the mycobacterial colonies were gently scraped off the agar surface using a cell scraper. Aliquots of the resulting pasty bacterial mass was transferred into 2 ml cryo-tubes with O-rings (Sarstedt, Norway) Bucladesine solubility dmso containing 250 μl of acid washed glass beads (≤ 106 μm; Sigma-Aldrich, Norway) and an additional 600 μl of extraction buffer, and stored at -80°C until protein extraction was performed. For protein extraction, the mycobacteria were disrupted mechanically by bead-beating in a Ribolyser (Hybaid, UK) at max speed (6.5) for 45 seconds.

Br J Sports Med 2008, 42:725–730 CrossRefPubMed 19 Tsitsimpikou

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F: Contextual influences and athlete attitudes to drugs in sport. Sp Management Rev 2010, 13:181–197.CrossRef 23. Dooley JA, Deshpande S, BMS202 price Adair CE:

Comparing adolescent-focused obesity prevention and reduction messages. J Business Res 2009, 63:154–160.CrossRef 24. Goodall C, Appiah O: Adolescents’ perceptions of Canadian cigarette package warning labels: investigating the effects of message framing. Health Comm 2008,23(2):117–127.CrossRef 25. Grady JL, Entin EB, Entin EE, Brunye TT: Using message framing to achieve long-term behavioural changes in persons with diabetes. [http://​www.​appliednursingre​search.​org/​article/​S0897-1897(09)00030-5/​abstract] Appl Nursing Res 2009. 26. Lewis IM, Watson BC, Tay RS, White KM: The role of fear appeals in improving driver safety: a review of PIK3C2G the effectiveness of fear-arousing (threat) appeals in road safety advertising. [http://​eprints.​qut.​edu.​au/​8050/​] Int J Behav Consult Therapy 2007,3(2):203–222. 27. McBride NT, Farringdon FH, Kennedy CA: Research to practice – formal dissemination of the School Health and Alcohol Reduction Process (SHAARP) in Australia. [http://​onlinelibrary.​wiley.​com/​doi/​10.​1080/​0959523070161351​0/​abstract] Drug Alcohol Rev 2007,26(6):665–672.CrossRefPubMed 28. Michie S, Abraham C: Interventions

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They also considered the approach of using a DZP basis and mixed

They also considered the approach of using a DZP basis and mixed pseudopotential to describe the disorder; this approach is vastly cheaper computationally and purports to inform us about the splittings due to the presence of the second layer. It is supported by SZP mixed and explicit pseudopotential

results in which these interlayer splittings are preserved. The approach taken in this paper, of calculating the properties of an explicitly ordered bilayer system using a DZP basis, complements that previous work. We can equivalently make comparisons between the ordered single-layer systems of [19] (δ-DZP-ord) and ordered double-layer Selleck Sapitinib systems as calculated with DZP bases here (δ δ-DZP-ord), and between the δ-DZP-ord systems of [19] and the (DZP) quasi-disordered single-layer system (δ-DZP-dis) presented in [23], in order to draw inferences about the (intractable, missing) δ δ-DZP-dis model, without at any stage compromising the accuracy of the results by using a less-complete basis set. (We shall now proceed to drop the ‘DZP’ from the labels, since it is ubiquitous here.) One important point in the consideration of disorder from these ideal models is that, at the lowest separation

distances, the crystalline FHPI order and alignment of the layers is greatly influencing their band structure. In a disordered system, the alignment effects would largely be negated, or averaged out, since one would expect to encounter all possible arrangements.

We therefore limit ourselves to discussing averages of splittings. The δ-ord layers show valley splittings (VS) of 92 meV, as compared to the 120(±10%) meV of the δ δ-ord bilayer systems presented here (apart from separations of less than 8 monolayers). The δ-dis system showed a valley Adenosine splitting of 63 meV, indicating that we might expect a reduction of valley splitting of up to 32% due to the (partial) inclusion of disorder. We can then infer that the valley splitting in the δ δ-dis systems should be around 81 meV, unless their separations are small (see Table 3). Table 3 Model properties and prediction of disordered splittings Separation VS (meV) VS (meV) ILS (Γ, meV) (ML) (ord-δδ, avg.) (dis-δδ, est.) (ord-δδ, avg.) 80 119 81 0 60 119 81 0 40 119 81 0 16 117 80 9 8 142 97 83 4 309a 211a 81a The valley splittings are calculated as the average difference between the lower (or upper) of each pair of bands (type 2 from Table 1), whilst the interlayer splittings (ILS) are calculated as the average difference between the lower (or upper) pair of bands (type 1 from Table 1). aThese values are likely considerably erroneous due to the crossing of bands in some alignments confusing the averaging of VS and ILS, and the vast effect alignment has at this low separation. We can estimate the interlayer splitting by taking the differences between bands 1 and 2 and bands 3 and 4 (except at low separation).

Figure 6 M-values of specific genes throughout the time-course fo

Figure 6 M-values of specific genes throughout the time-course following acidic pH shift in S. meliloti 1021 wild type strain (closed squares) and sigma factor rpoH1 mutant (open squares). Graphics A and B exemplify RpoH1-independent up and downregulation, respectively, whereas graphics D and E show RpoH1-dependently regulated genes. Torin 1 C and F account for complex RpoH1-dependent downregulation in the later time points following acidic shift. Identification of S. meliloti genes that are regulated in an RpoH1-dependent manner following an acidic pH shift Genes classified as RpoH1-dependent did not present significant differential

selleck chemicals expression after pH shift in the rpoH1 mutant arrays, having shown otherwise a threefold differential expression for at least one time point in the wild type arrays. They comprise as many as 101 genes of the S. meliloti genome whose transcription

after pH shift seems to be dependent on ACP-196 concentration rpoH1 expression (Additional file 4). A number of protein turnover and chaperone genes were upregulated in the wild type arrays, such as the ones coding for the heat shock proteins IbpA, GrpE and GroEL5 (Figure 6D), as the ones coding for the Clp proteases, which are involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins [25]. No differential expression whatsoever was observed for those genes in the rpoH1 mutant arrays, characterizing thus an RpoH1-dependent expression of stress-response genes upon acid pH shift (Figure 5B, Additional file 6). Genes involved in translation, like tufA and tufB, rplC rplD and rplS, were downregulated, characterizing a seemingly RpoH1-dependent inhibition of translational activity in S. meliloti

cells under pH stress. Genes cheW3 and mcpT (Figure 6E), coding 5-FU solubility dmso for proteins involved in chemotaxis, were also downregulated only in the wild type arrays. Identification of S. meliloti genes that are regulated in a complex manner following an acidic pH shift RpoH1 is also involved in the downregulation of specific transiently expressed genes. Interestingly, three genes from wild type cluster C were not grouped in cluster I as transiently upregulated in the rpoH1 mutant arrays. Those are the genes dctA, coding for a dicarboxylate transport protein, ndvA, coding for a beta glucan export protein, and the gene smc01505, which codes for the RpoE2 anti-sigma factor. These genes seem to have an RpoH1-independent upregulation, but an RpoH1-dependent downregulation as of 20 minutes following pH shift. In the wild type arrays, their expression is transient, but in the rpoH1 mutant arrays they remained upregulated throughout the entire time period analyzed (Figure 6C, F).

enterica for typing purposes J Clin Microbiol 2004,42(12):5722–5

enterica for typing purposes. J Clin Microbiol 2004,42(12):5722–5730.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 51. Chang CH, Chang YC, Underwood A, Chiou CS, Kao CY: VNTRDB: a bacterial variable number tandem repeat locus database. Nucleic Acids Res 2007,35(Database issue):D416-D421.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 52. Bart R, Cohn M, Kassen A, McCallum EJ, Shybut M, Petriello A, Krasileva K, Dahlbeck D, Medina C, Alicai DMXAA cell line T, Kumar L, Moreira LM, Rodrigues-Neto J, Verdier V, Santana MA, Kositcharoenkul N, Vanderschuren H, Gruissem W, Bernal A, Staskawicz BJ: High-throughput genomic sequencing of cassava bacterial blight

strains identifies conserved effectors to target for durable resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012,109(28):E1972-E1979.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CT was involved in the conception and design of the study, sampling, bacterial isolation, molecular characterization using AFLPs and VNTRs, data analyses check details and who wrote the manuscript. NAR performed DNA extraction, the evaluation of 3 VNTR loci, VNTR data analyses and drafting of the manuscript. LP contributed in the evaluation 3 VNTR loci, VNTR data analyses and drafting of the manuscript. CM carried the sampling and data acquisition. AT participated in the data acquisition and revised the content of the manuscript. SR was involved in the conception and design of the study, drafting Thalidomide and revising the manuscript. RK was involved in the conception and design of the study and the design of the VNTR strategy. AB participated in the conception and design of the project, funding acquisition,

editing and revisiting of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Although group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) was originally described as a cause of mastitis in bovines, it has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in humans. GBS is typically a commensal in the urogenital and lower gastrointestinal tracts of healthy adults, and pregnant women can transmit the bacterium to their baby during childbirth. AZD1480 purchase Newborns infected with GBS can develop life threatening infections including pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. GBS has also been shown to cause disease in the elderly and adults with underlying medical conditions where skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia can result [1]. Molecular epidemiological studies utilizing multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have shown that the distribution of GBS lineages varies by source. Strains belonging to clonal complex (CC)-17 and CC-19, for example, more frequently caused newborn disease compared to strains of other CCs [2–4], with CC-17 strains causing more cases of meningitis and late-onset disease [2].