The loss of TP53 gene could damage its DNA-binding properties and

The loss of TP53 gene could damage its DNA-binding properties and transcription factor function, thus leading to aberrant cell proliferation. In human populations, the TP53 gene is polymorphic at amino acid 72 of the protein that it encodes. Recently, much attention has been focused

on possible associations of TP53 polymorphisms and RepSox manufacturer cancer risks. The most informative polymorphism in TP53 gene is located in exon 4 at codon 72, which encodes two distinct functional allelic forms arginine (Arg) and proline (Pro) because of a transversion G to C [15], resulting in different biochemical and biological protein features. Consequently, three distinct genotypes were created, namely, homozygous for arginine (Arg/Arg), homozygous for proline (Pro/Pro), and heterozygous (Arg/Pro). Previously, Arg variant has been KU-57788 clinical trial thought to increase susceptibility to gastric cancer[16] and Arg homozygosity might contribute to cervical Selleckchem SCH727965 cancer [17]. Nevertheless, Pro homozygosity might have an association with lung [18] and hepotocellular cancer [19] risk. The heterozygous genotype Arg/Pro has been implicated as a risk factor for bladder cancer [20]. In recent literature, inconclusive data regarding TP53 codon 72 were found in some cancers, such as gastric cancer in which controversial conclusions were obtained in Asians [21] and in individuals from Northern Brazil [22]. Similarly,

up to date, published data on the possible association of TP53 codon 72 polymorphism with breast carcinoma have also generated controversial and inconclusive results. To the best of our knowledge, whether TP53 codon 72 polymorphism could increase breast cancer risk remains largely uncertain. To clarify this

association may help us better understand the possible risk of breast cancer and therefore contribute to its prevention. As a single study may have been underpowered in clarifying Metalloexopeptidase the relationship of TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms with breast carcinoma susceptibility, in the present study we performed evidence-based quantitative meta-analyses that can increase statistical power to address the association. Materials and methods Literature search strategy for identification of the studies We carried out a search in the Medline, EMBASE, OVID, Sciencedirect, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) without a language limitation, covering all papers published up to Jan 2009, with a combination of the following keywords: TP53, P53, codon 72, breast, carcinoma, neoplasm, tumor, cancer and polymorphism. The keywords were paired each time in order to get more relevant information. For example, the word “”breast”" was always kept and others were substituted in different moments. We evaluated potentially associated publications by checking their titles and abstracts and then procured the most relevant publications for a closer examination.

Other regimens that showed objective response included irinotecan

Other regimens that showed objective response included irinotecan/platinum, etoposide/platinum, and paclitaxel/carboplatin;

however, the efficacy was limited with progression-free interval approximately 6 months. Despite importance of response, it would be more important to monitor if adverse effects of chemotherapy worsen quality of life of the patients. Among these PF-02341066 ic50 reports, the longest progression-period of 14 months was obtained by Temsirolimus [47]. The observed response duration was surprisingly longer than those obtained by any cytotoxic agents so far with no serious toxicities. The report encouraged us to investigate another chemotherapeutic strategy for CCC. From the reported cases, however, it could be concluded that CCC is a potentially extremely chemo-resistant tumor against cytotoxic agents, especially in recurrent or refractory settings. Another strategy including molecular PD0332991 supplier targeting agents might be needed for the treatment of these tumors. Incorporation of molecular targeting agents for the treatment of CCC In the aspects of molecular characteristics as well as clinical behavior, it is hypothesized that CCC belongs

to a different entity from other histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. First of all, the incidences of p53 mutation and p53 overexpression were much less frequent in CCC than in other histologic types of epithelial ovarian cancer [49, 50]. On the DNA Damage inhibitor other hand, mutation of p53 gene was quite frequent in serous subtype of ovarian cancers, and most of the alterations were missense mutations [51]. In addition

to p53 status, CCC has a quite unique expression pattern of several molecules. Glutathione Cytidine deaminase peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was found at levels 30-fold higher on average in CCC compared with the other ovarian cancer subtypes through studies with cDNA arrays and serial analysis of gene expression [52]. Elevated expression of GPX3 might contribute to chemoresistance phenotype, which is often observed in the patients with CCC. Another investigation using oligonucleotide microarrays reported that glutaredoxin (GLRX) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), in addition to GPX3, were highly expressed in clear cell type ovarian cancer, suggesting that high levels of these proteins relating with antioxidant function render CCC to be more resistant to chemotherapy [53, 54]. Further, a report using oligonucleotide probe arrays showed that a transcription factor, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) was upregulated in CCC cell lines [55]. Overexpression of HNF-1 was confirmed by immunohistological staining of clinical samples. Further, overexpression of HNF-1 was observed in the specimens of borderline clear cell tumor and benign clear cell tumor [56].

For instance, wpgrp1 and tollip genes are good regulator candidat

For instance, wpgrp1 and tollip genes are good regulator candidates and they could play a crucial role in this inhibition [76, 84]. Recently, Ryu et al. [75] have reported that the Drosophila homeobox gene caudal also regulates the commensal-gut bacteria by repressing the nuclear factor Kappa B-dependent AMP genes. Ongoing RNAi experiments will provide more information about the function and the regulation of these pathways in the Sitophilus system. The high accumulation of transcripts from Rab7, Hrs and SNARE genes could be viewed as being due to intense endosomal trafficking

within the bacteriocyte. These genes are certainly very involved in vesicle synthesis and fusion [62–64]. Moreover, intense vesicle trafficking has already been observed by electronic BTSA1 cell line microscopy within Sitophilus bacteriocytes [30]. Vesicle trafficking may aid in metabolic component exchanges between the host and the symbiont, or it may help in endosome fusion, with late endosomes and lysozomes, to favor autophagy. For the latter, we can speculate about the possibility that autophagy could serve as an additional host mechanism to regulate symbiont density. In support of this hypothesis, in silico cDNA comparison between symbiont-full and symbiont-free ovaries has shown

that vesicle trafficking is also highly represented in the presence of Wolbachia in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare [35]. Moreover, receptors of innate immunity have been identified on vertebrate endosome membranes [57, 87] and autophagy has been described as a possible means of eliminating intracellular pathogens [61]. To permanently sequester the I-BET151 manufacturer endosymbiont within the

bacteriome, and to avoid bacterial invasion into insect tissues, bacteriocyte cells need to maintain homeostasis and to survive during insect developmental stages. While VX-680 mouse apoptosis has been observed as a response to infection by a wide range of animal and plant pathogens [88, 89], very limited data are available on invertebrate symbiotic systems [70]. To tackle DCLK1 this question in the Sitophilus system, we have analyzed genes potentially involved in apoptosis inhibition (iap2 and iap3) and apoptosis execution (caspase-like). We have shown that the high expression of apoptosis inhibitor genes paralleled the low amount of caspase-like gene transcripts in the bacteriome. In addition to the upregulation of genes involved in cell growth, such as Ras and leonardo 14-3-3, these preliminary data suggest that weevil bacteriocytes manage to survive an endosymbiont infection by inhibiting the apoptosis pathway. Inhibition of apoptosis can also be mediated by the expression of the FK506BP gene (or FKBP). In vertebrates, the FKBP38 gene inhibits apoptosis by interacting with Bcl-2 [90]. Moreover, we cannot exclude the possibility that apoptosis inhibition is manipulated by the symbiont for its own survival.

e Mann–Whitney U) or the Wilcoxon signed rank test (for paired s

e. Mann–Whitney U) or the Wilcoxon signed rank test (for paired samples) was used. The similarity LB-100 in vitro between cell distributions in different habitats was assessed by calculating for each habitat the average DMXAA in vivo difference to habitats inoculated from the same set of initial cultures ( same >) and the

average difference to habitats inoculated from different sets of initial cultures ( different >). For devices of types-1 and 2 these differences were calculated using habitats on all devices of a given type, while for devices of type-5 comparisons were only made between habitats located on the same device. To test whether there is a significant difference between selleck chemicals llc same > and different > for the devices of types 1 and 2 we used a randomization test. To get a single observable per habitat, the ratio of these

two differences was taken: d relative  = < d same  >/< d different  >, when d relative is smaller than 1 patterns are less different when they are inoculated from the same set of cultures. The difference between spatiotemporal patterns is a comparative measure; the ratio d relative of a given habitat therefore depends on the patterns in all other habitats. To deal with this dependence between data points we assessed significance using a randomization test, where we randomize with respect to the set of initial cultures. For each device type (type 1 and 2) we calculated Inositol monophosphatase 1 the average of the log transformed d relative () by averaging over all habitats, we then recalculated this measure after randomizing the spatiotemporal patterns by assigning each observed spatiotemporal pattern to a randomly chosen habitat. The randomizations were performed 10.000 times and p-values were calculated by taking the fraction of cases where after randomization was smaller than the

of the original, non-randomized, data set. Two devices of type 2 were both inoculated from the same set of initial cultures (Devices 10 and 11, Additional files 3 and 11), for this analysis the habitats on these devices were grouped together. Strain neutrality Neutrality of the strains during bulk growth has been previously described [42] and was confirmed here by measuring the average doubling time of cultures during the 3.5 hours of growth before inoculation of the devices. There was no significant difference in the average doubling time of strains JEK1036 (green) and JEK1037 (red, mean ± sd = 35.5 ± 2.0 min and 36.0 ± 2.6 min respectively, paired Student’s t-test, p = 0.06, N = 23). Growth curves for the two strains in bulk conditions are shown in Additional file 1. To test for marker neutrality during growth in the microfabricated devices, we compared the occupancies of the two strains in the habitats.

In particular, we have no references about protein supplement

In particular, we have no references about protein supplement amongst 3-Methyladenine purchase the adepts of strength training in gyms in Italy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplements, alone or in association with other intakes and also to identify the dietary behavior amongst people who want to “”build up muscles”" in regular commercial fitness’ users in Palermo, Italy. Methods Participants Permissions to

conduct a survey were obtained from the managers of a representative number of six fitness centers located in the inner city and the suburbs of Palermo in 2009. The fitness centers have been identified using a database of CONI register (National Olympic Committee Register for Sport and Fitness Associations). Using the database of fitness centers, a number of 800 people (20% of the total number), have been randomly selected as potential participants. Only fitness/gym attendees who were taking part in strength training courses have been selected. All gym/fitness

users practicing aerobic activities (such as Aerobic, Spinning, Step, circuit training, endurance and cardiovascular selleck programs, etc…) were excluded. On the basis of these inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 207 participants were retained for the investigation. Questionnaire procedure In order to evaluate supplements use, dietary behavior and other related information, a 19-items questionnaire was developed based on

previously published studies [20–24]. An informal pilot survey was preliminarily conducted among 27 customers of two fitness centers in order to identify issues of timing, wording or minor clarifications. The pilot-interviewed subjects had similar demographics and educational level to the target population. The instrument examined the use of dietary supplements and their nutrient content (protein in association with other supplements), dietary P-type ATPase behavior, reasons for use, education level and occupation. This latest was categorized as sedentary, standing, manual work and heavy manual work, according to the EPIC physical activity questionnaires buy Volasertib criteria [22]. Easy definitions of the supplements were provided to the participants. Completion of the questionnaire implied respondent consent to participate in the study. According to the Italian regulations, ethical approval was not required for this study. The questionnaire was completed using the face-to-face interview method during four months by the same investigator. The surveyed population was split between supplement users and non users for comparison. Data Analysis Data analysis was performed using EpiInfo software version 3.2 (CDC, Atlanta, GA, US) and Statistica version 8.0 software for Windows (Tulsa, OK, US).

N = 12-18 (C)

N = 12-18. (C) Fluorometric analysis of a 4 kDa FITC-dextran probe in serum samples

obtained from WT and MMP-9−/− mice in the presence or absence of C. mTOR inhibitor rodentium infection (10d and this website 30d PI). *P<0.05 compared to Sham WT; # P<0.05 compared to Sham MMP-9−/−. N = 7-17. To investigate the presence of deficits in epithelial barrier function, WT and MMP-9−/− mice were orogastrically gavaged with FITC-labeled dextran probe (4 kDa). Although dextran flux does not localize the source of macro-molecular uptake along the length of the gastrointestinal tract, the probe is routinely used as an indicator of gut permeability in animal models [21]. Plasma concentrations of the probe were then determined by fluorimetry and used as an indication of intestinal permeability, as described previously [22]. Significant increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction were detected, compared to sham-infected mice, when WT (10d PI) and MMP-9−/− (10d PI) mice were infected with C. rodentium RO4929097 (Figure 2C) (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences noted between WT and MMP−/− infected groups at 10d PI. At 30d PI, intestinal permeability had returned to baseline levels in both WT and MMP-9−/− mice. Immunocytochemistry of sham and C. rodentium-infected (10d) colon from WT mice revealed localized expression of MMP-9 (green)

primarily at the apical surface of intestinal epithelium, with more intense staining in infected mice (Figure 3). No non-specific binding of anti-MMP-9 antibody was observed in isotype

controls. Figure 3 MMP-9 expression Niclosamide is increased with C. rodentium infection. Immunohistochemistry shows that MMP-9 distributed throughout the crypts (green) in uninfected WT mice is localized primarily to the apical surface of intestinal epithelium in C. rodentium-infected (10d) WT mice. Scale bar, 100 μm. C. rodentium infection modulates goblet cells in colonocytes Periodic Acid Shiff (PAS) staining was used to assess the qualitative (Figure 4A) and quantitative (Figure 4B) changes to goblet cells that occurred during C. rodentium infection. There were no differences in the number of positively stained red cells in colonic crypts from MMP-9+/+ cells and MMP-9−/− mice at 10d PI. Quantitative analysis of the number of positive PAS stained cells per crypt showed a significant increase in MMP-9−/− mice at 30d PI, compared to wild type infected mice (P < 0.05). Figure 4 Post-infectious goblet cell hyperplasia occurs in MMP-9−/− mice. (A) Representative histology demonstrating goblet cells stained positive (red) for PAS in MMP-9+/+ and MMP-9−/− colonocytes. (B) Quantitative analysis shows similar numbers of goblet cells in WT and MMP-9−/− mice at 10d PI. A significant increase in goblet cells was observed in MMP-9−/− mice at 30d PI. *P<0.05 compared to WT-infected animals. N = 3–5.

The ΔΔ C Baetge, B Lockard Ct formula, Ct represents the real tim

The ΔΔ C Baetge, B Lockard Ct formula, Ct represents the real time cycle number at which microRNA and mRNA probe fluorescence is exponential. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and presented as changes from baseline after 12 wks. Results An overall significant MANOVA interaction was

observed among EX and C groups (Wilks’ Lambda p<0.001). MANOVA univariate analysis revealed no significant interactions among groups in changes in microRNA 146a (EX -0.73±2.0; C -0.28±2.1, p=0.46); TRAF6 (EX –1.35±2.7; C -0.74±3.5, p=0.52); mRNA expression levels of PI3K (EX -2.4±4.5; C -1.8±2.9, p=0.66); AKT (EX -1.34±4.2; C -0.67±7.4, p=0.70); or, mRNA Epigenetics inhibitor NF-kB (EX -1.6±3.2; C -0.73±3.2, p=0.40). Significant interactions were observed among groups in changes in microRNA 21 (EX -1.5±2.34; C 0.13±2.2, p=0.03); mRNA expression level of its target gene PTEN (EX -4.5±3.2; C -1.6±3.4, p=0.005); mRNA IL-6 (EX -2.8±3.6; C 2.8±2.2, p<0.001); and, mRNA TNF-α expression levels (EX -0.52±2.5; C 2.3±1.9, p<0.001). Exercise and diet-induced changes in mRNA IL-6 and mRNA TNF-α expression were positively and significantly correlated to changes in body weight (r=0.47, r=0.30), fat mass (r=0.48, r=0.31), and percent body fat (r=0.48, r=0.32), respectively.

Conclusion Results of this study indicate Geneticin purchase that exercise and diet-induced weight loss affects molecular changes in circulating microRNAs, significantly affects microRNA 21 and its target gene PTEN, mRNA TNF-α, and mRNA IL-6 levels suggesting a anti-inflammatory response compared to a CP673451 control group. These findings suggest that exercise and diet-induced weight loss is significantly associated with a reduction in inflammation.

However, more research is needed to understand microRNA Parvulin regulation associated with inflammation in response to exercise. Acknowledgements Supported by Curves International (Waco, TX)”
“Background Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a stress-related phenomenon experienced by elite-level and recreational athletes alike. Athletes are subjected to stressors from physical, psychological, and biochemical sources that may lead to OTS and significant decrements in mental and physical performance. OTS may be characterized by elevated perceived stress, reduced mood quality, increased tension/anxiety, and disrupted sleep quality/quantity; each of which can influence and compound the other, leading to a vicious cycle of increasingly poor performance, increased stress, and disrupted sleep patterns. Methods In this study, we supplemented moderately stressed subjects with an extract of monocot grasses (corn grass, wheat grass, and bamboo). Previous animal studies have shown significant anti-stress and relaxation benefits of monocot grass extracts (MGE), likely due to their content of plant metabolite 6-MBOA (6-methoxybenzoxazolinone) and its ability to influence serotonin levels.

The Hartman effect has been investigated in various ways by exten

The Hartman effect has been investigated in various ways by extending the system not only for a single barrier but also for double [8, 9] and multiple barrier [10, 11] structures. Olkhovsky, Recami, and Salesi came out with the idea that for non-resonant tunneling through two potential barriers, the tunneling time (which is a phase time) is

independent not only of the barrier width but also of the barrier separation [8]. The approximations introduced in this reference to obtain the unknown coefficients, led these authors to unphysical results like the generalized Hartman effect. This has been called the generalized Hartman effect (GHE). The two-barrier problem can be solved without approximations, see for example, in the work of Pereyra [12]. An experiment to check this effect was performed by check details Longhi et learn more al. [10]

where optical pulses of 1,550 nm wavelength were transmitted through a double-barrier system of Bragg gratings. In this reference, non-conclusive and inappropriately presented results for five different values of the gratings separation were reported. Most of the theoretical conclusions were based on questionable formulas and unnecessarily involved calculations. For example, Equation 2 (used in Equations 3 and 4) of [8] is not the actual transmission coefficient through a double Bragg grating. A criticism on the mathematical rigor on GHE is also given by S. Kudaka and S. Matsumoto [13, 14]. It is easy to check from a straightforward calculation, or from the precise and general formulas published in [7] as quoted below, that the phase time for a double barrier (DB) with separation L has the structure SCH 900776 cost (1) with T 2 and T the double- and single-barrier transmission coefficients, respectively, k the wave number, ω the frequency and A i , A r , F, and G simple functions of the potential parameters (P. Pereyra and Flucloronide H. P. Simanjuntak, unpublished work). Despite this clear dependence on L, involved and contradictory

arguments lead to establish that τ becomes independent of L[8, 10, 11]. In the following we will consistently use a for the separation between barriers. For the inference of a generalized Hartman effect to be meaningful for multi-barriers, double superlattices (SLs) or double Bragg gratings (BG), one would of course need to keep the physical parameters [like the energy (wavelength) of the particle (wave)] fixed as the length between barriers is increased. The tunneling and transmission times behavior should be taken with care when one tries to find a Hartman effect due to barrier separation in multi-barrier systems [8, 11] since, in general, the density of resonance energies grows rapidly as the separation increases. It is well known that the non-resonant gaps in the band structure of a SL or a BG become resonating when these systems are divided and separated; and the separation is increasingly varied. This was already recognized in [15] (for double SL) and in [10] (for double BG).

However, when using concentrations above the MIC, LP5 targets the

However, when using concentrations above the MIC, LP5 targets the bacterial membrane leading to disruption of the bacterial membrane. Results and discussion Determination of MIC of LP5 against S. aureus Given PKC412 in vitro that the lysine-peptoid LP5 has antimicrobial activity toward a number of bacterial and fungal pathogens, we investigated how LP5 interacts with and affects the pathogenic bacterium S. aureus. We tested the MIC of LP5 against two S. aureus strains, 8325–4, a laboratory strain of

human origin [24], and the clinically relevant community acquired strain USA300 [25]. MIC was in the range of 16 to 32 μg/ml for both strains. Permeabilization of the S. aureus membrane by LP5 is concentration dependent Selleckchem ARRY-162 Many AMPs interact with the bacterial membrane, leading to pore-formation and subsequently leakage of intracellular components [5]. Therefore, to determine whether LP5 influences S. aureus membrane Evofosfamide manufacturer structure, we investigated membrane integrity

by measuring ATP leakage. We found that increasing concentrations of LP5 added to S. aureus 8325–4 at time-point 0, lead to a gradual increase in ATP leakage from the cells (Figure 2). The addition of 1000 μg/ml of LP5 most likely resulted in an abrupt destruction of the bacterial membrane, since no intracellular ATP was detectable and an immediate increase in extracellular ATP was detected. However, at low concentrations of LP5 only limited leakage of ATP was observed, showing that the leakage of ATP is concentration dependent. Thus, in this experiment we find

that LP5 targets the membrane at high concentrations whereas little effect on the membrane was seen at low concentrations. Figure 2 Measurement of ATP leakage from S . aureus 8325–4 after treatment with LP5. Measurement of intracellular (IC) and extracellular (EC) ATP after treatment with increasing concentrations of LP5 (0–1000 μg/ml). These observations agree well with the killing kinetics Methocarbamol of LP5 against S. aureus (Figure 3). Here, we performed dose-dependent time-kill assays at two concentrations representing 1 × MIC and 5 × MIC (Figure 3). LP5 reduced the colony forming unit (CFU) counts by 2 log units during the first 30 min of the experiment at 5 × MIC. Thereafter, the killing rate gradually decreased and after the 5 h time course approached a total reduction of CFU count by 4 log units. At 1 × MIC LP5 did not reduce the CFU within the 5 h of exposure (Figure 3) and the exposed bacteria resumed growth when transferred to media without LP5 (data not shown). Thus, at this concentration LP5 does not to kill S. aureus, instead it prevents growth, indicating that LP5 does not affect the cell membrane but rather has an intracellular target. This notion is supported by the finding that concentrations several fold above the MIC is needed to see ATP leakage.

More recent literature has provided greater insight into the anab

More recent literature has provided greater insight into the anabolic/performance enhancing mechanisms of creatine supplementation

[15, 25] suggesting that these effects may be due ACY-241 ic50 to satellite cell proliferation, myogenic transcription factors and insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling [16]. Saremi et al [26] reported a change in myogenic transcription factors when creatine supplementation and resistance training are combined in young healthy males. It was found that serum levels of myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, were decreased in the creatine group. Collectively, in spite of a few controversial results, it seems that creatine supplementation combined with resistance training would amplify performance enhancement on maximum and endurance strength as well muscle hypertrophy. Effects of creatine supplementation on predominantly anaerobic buy CB-5083 exercise Creatine has demonstrated neuromuscular performance enhancing properties on short duration, predominantly anaerobic, intermittent exercises. Bazzucch et al [27] observed enhanced neuromuscular function

of the elbow flexors in both electrically induced and voluntary contractions but not on endurance performance after 4 loading doses of 5 g creatine plus 15 g maltodextrin for 5/d in young, moderately trained men. Creatine supplementation may facilitate the reuptake of Ca2+ into the sacroplasmic reticulum by the action of the Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase pump, which could enable force to be produced more rapidly through the faster detachment of the GW-572016 order actomyosin bridges. A previous meta-analysis [28] reported an overall creatine supplementation effect size

(ES) of 0.24 ± 0.02 for activities lasting ≤30 s. (primarily using the ATP- phosphocreatine energy system). For this short high-intensity exercise, creatine supplementation resulted in a 7.5 ± 0.7% increase from base line which was greater than the 4.3 ± 0.6% improvement observed for placebo groups. When looking at the individual selected measures for anaerobic performance the greatest effect of creatine supplementation was observed on the number of repetitions oxyclozanide which showed an ES of 0.64 ± 0.18. Furthermore, an increase from base line of 45.4 ± 7.2% compared to 22.9 ± 7.3% for the placebo group was observed. The second greatest ES was on the weight lifted at 0.51 ± 0.16 with an increase from base line of 13.4 ± 2.7% for the placebo group and 24.7 ± 3.9% for the creatine group. Other measures improved by creatine with a mean ES greater than 0 were for the amount of work accomplished, weight lifted, time, force production, cycle ergometer revolutions/min and power. The possible effect of creatine supplementation on multiple high intensity short duration bouts (<30 s) have shown an ES not statistically significant from 0.