In particular, we have no references about protein supplement

In particular, we have no references about protein supplement amongst 3-Methyladenine purchase the adepts of strength training in gyms in Italy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplements, alone or in association with other intakes and also to identify the dietary behavior amongst people who want to “”build up muscles”" in regular commercial fitness’ users in Palermo, Italy. Methods Participants Permissions to

conduct a survey were obtained from the managers of a representative number of six fitness centers located in the inner city and the suburbs of Palermo in 2009. The fitness centers have been identified using a database of CONI register (National Olympic Committee Register for Sport and Fitness Associations). Using the database of fitness centers, a number of 800 people (20% of the total number), have been randomly selected as potential participants. Only fitness/gym attendees who were taking part in strength training courses have been selected. All gym/fitness

users practicing aerobic activities (such as Aerobic, Spinning, Step, circuit training, endurance and cardiovascular selleck programs, etc…) were excluded. On the basis of these inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 207 participants were retained for the investigation. Questionnaire procedure In order to evaluate supplements use, dietary behavior and other related information, a 19-items questionnaire was developed based on

previously published studies [20–24]. An informal pilot survey was preliminarily conducted among 27 customers of two fitness centers in order to identify issues of timing, wording or minor clarifications. The pilot-interviewed subjects had similar demographics and educational level to the target population. The instrument examined the use of dietary supplements and their nutrient content (protein in association with other supplements), dietary P-type ATPase behavior, reasons for use, education level and occupation. This latest was categorized as sedentary, standing, manual work and heavy manual work, according to the EPIC physical activity questionnaires buy Volasertib criteria [22]. Easy definitions of the supplements were provided to the participants. Completion of the questionnaire implied respondent consent to participate in the study. According to the Italian regulations, ethical approval was not required for this study. The questionnaire was completed using the face-to-face interview method during four months by the same investigator. The surveyed population was split between supplement users and non users for comparison. Data Analysis Data analysis was performed using EpiInfo software version 3.2 (CDC, Atlanta, GA, US) and Statistica version 8.0 software for Windows (Tulsa, OK, US).

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