Each group was further randomized according to duration of antibi

Each group was further randomized according to duration of antibiotic maintenance (a: single dose prophylaxis, b: additional dose 12 hours after prophylaxis, c: beginning with prophylactic dose until the nephrostomy tube removal). Seven patients in whom purulent urine was obtained through the access needle were excluded from

the study. Groups were compared in terms of stone-and operation-related factors as well as preoperative urine cultures, access cultures, stone cultures, postoperative urine cultures, and presence of SIRS.

Results: A total of 191 patients (group 1: 95, group 2: 96) were evaluated. Mean patient age, body mass index, stone size, and perioperative outcomes were similar. Positive culture rates did not differ between groups. SIRS was observed in 13 (43.3%) patients in group 1 and 17 patients (56.7%) in group 2 (P = 0.44). The relation Quisinostat price between duration of antibiotic maintenance and SIRS development was not different in each group

(P = 0.95 for group 1, P: 0.39 for group 2). Urosepsis was observed SN-38 DNA Damage inhibitor in two patients, and one patient died because of septic shock.

Conclusions: Sulbactam-ampicillin and cefuroxime antibiotics can be used safely for prophylaxis of PCNL. Single dose administration is sufficient.”
“Introduction: Evidence-based medicine guides clinical practice. Currently, the evidence base on adenotonsillectomy is under scrutiny to establish clinical guidelines. It is therefore important that reports of clinical trials are of high quality. Guidance on reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are available in the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement first published in 1996 and revised in 2001 and 2010.

Methods: A review of randomised

controlled trials on adenotonsillectomy published after 2001 was undertaken. Each report was systematically assessed using the checklist of items from the CONSORT statement.

Results: Twenty-five trials were identified. All trials, except one, were identified as a randomised controlled trial by title or abstract. Entinostat ic50 Twenty percent of trials reported a sample size calculation. A third of trials reported their method of generating a random allocation sequence. Similarly, a third stated the method of implementing the random allocation. A fifth of trials reported a clear flow of trial participants, with only a single trial reporting this with the aid of a diagram.

Conclusion: This review shows the quality of reporting needs to be improved. Critical appraisal of poorly reported trials may result in erroneous conclusions, even though these trials may have been carried out with rigorous adherence to a protocol of high standard. Authors of clinical trial reports should be encouraged to consult the CONSORT statement. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The genetic diversity of 31 identified strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp.

“The activity of an aqueous extract of Prasaplai, a Thai t

“The activity of an aqueous extract of Prasaplai, a Thai traditional medicine, was studied on the isolated rat uterus

in the oestrus stage. The results showed that the extract inhibited the contraction induced by a submaximal dose of acetylcholine (2.04×10(4)mgmL(1)), oxytocin (1.54×10(4)mgmL(1)) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) (6.00×10(4)mgmL(1)). The inhibition Selleck PF-6463922 was concentration-dependent and reversible by tissue washing. The IC50 of Prasaplai extracts expressed as milligram of powdered preparation per millilitre of perfusion solution for acetylcholine, oxytocin and PGE(2) were 11.70, 10.00 and 5.75mgmL(1), respectively. These data reveal that Prasaplai has an antispasmodic effect against uterine contraction by different mechanisms and corroborate the traditional use in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Oral administration of single dose of the water extract, calculated as powdered Prasaplai up to 20gkg(1) in rats, showed no sign and symptom of acute

toxicity, and no rat died even at the maximum dose.”
“A reverse phase liquid chromatographic analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Dapivirine and DS003 content in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using a C(18) column with mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of 0.05% v/v trifluoroacetic acid in water as mobile phase A and acetonitrile as mobile phase B at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Both of the analytes PU-H71 mw were quantified with a UV detector at 245 nm. Dapivirine and DS003 were subjected to the stress conditions of oxidation, acid and base hydrolysis and thermolysis. The analytes were found to be stable under acidic and thermal conditions. Dapivirine was not significantly affected by base hydrolysis but was severely affected by oxidative conditions. DS003 was significantly affected by both oxidation and base hydrolysis. The stability-indicating capability

of this method was demonstrated by adequate separation of the degradation peaks from those of the actives in the stress degraded samples. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, system suitability, precision and accuracy in accordance with ICH guidelines. The proposed method was applied LDN-193189 in vitro to quantitate Dapivirine and DS003 in drug-excipient compatibility studies, assay of the tablets and stability studies of Dapivirine and DS003 tablets.”
“Thin Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) films were pulsed laser deposited onto Gd3Ga5O12 (111) and (001) substrates. Processing conditions were optimized to obtain compressively strained films with a ferromagnetic resonance linewidth at 9 GHz as narrow as 0.9 Oe and high uniaxial magnetic anisotropy H-u=-880 Oe. Several designs of magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) bandpass filters were fabricated and tested: 0.45 and 0.22 mu m thick YIG films lain on transducers alumina board and with microstripe transducers defined directly onto YIG film, with effective antenna areal sizes of 2 and 0.4 mm(2).

The in vitro inhibition potential of MPA towards human liver micr

The in vitro inhibition potential of MPA towards human liver microsomes (HLMs)-catalyzed AZT glucuronidation was evaluated.

Inhibition kinetic type was determined, and the inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki) was calculated. Data fitting using Dixon plot and Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that MPA exhibited competitive inhibition towards (HLMs)-catalyzed AZT glucuronidation. The second plot with slopes obtained from Lineweaver-Burk plot versus MPA concentrations was employed to calculate the Ki value to be 13.8 mu M. Using accumulated concentration in the liver, the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentration was calculated to increase by 16 %, indicating the possibility of MPA-AZT interaction.”
“Sagittal imbalance is an important risk factor for spinal disability, pain and loss of health related quality of life. Its SN-38 inhibitor correction has a positive impact on these outcomes. Still, it is a very aggressive surgery, with a high revision rate. The aim of this study is to analyze the most important causes of failure of surgery for correction of sagittal imbalance.

In this retrospective observational cohort study twelve patients https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd1390.html who previously underwent

surgery for sagittal imbalance correction were revised in the period 2009-10. We analyzed angular parameters of sagittal balance before and after primary surgery, type of instrumentation, modality of fusion, implant density, instrumented levels, modality of failure, time from first surgery and angular parameters after revision.

Causes of failure were insufficient correction, junctional kyphosis, screw loosening and pseudoarthrosis with rod breakage. In every case, patients presented a new onset or a worsening of sagittal imbalance and pain.”
“Tripterygium GS-7977 wilfordii Hook F., called lei gong teng in Chinese, is a vine used in traditional medicine to treat fever, chills, edema and carbuncle. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition of UGT1A3-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation by demethylzeylasteral which is an important bioactive component isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., trying to indicate clinical adverse effects

of demethylzeylasteral-4-MU interaction. Recombinant UGT1A3-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction was employed as probe reaction to evaluate the inhibitory potential of demethylzeylasteral. About 87.8 % activity of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation was inhibited at 100 mu M of demethylzeylasteral, and data fitting results using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated the competitive inhibition of demethylzeylasteral towards UGT1A3-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction with the Ki value to be 1.9 mu M. All these experimental results reminds us that much attention should be given to the utilization of demethylzeylasteral and demethylzeyasteral-containing herbs (e. g. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.

Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd “
“Pulse crops are

Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Pulse crops are cool season, annually OICR-9429 solubility dmso grown legume crops, which are harvested for their seeds. They are invaluable agricultural commodities which are produced and imported by many regions of the world. Pulse seeds are a valuable source of dietary protein, carbohydrates, fiber and an important source of essential vitamins and minerals. Their nutritional characteristics

have been associated with a reduction in the incidence of various cancers, HDL cholesterol, type-2 diabetes and heart disease. Pulses also contain protein and non-protein antinutritional factors, which may cause deleterious effects on the host when the seeds or processed seeds are consumed raw. Conversely, recent studies have demonstrated that protein antinutritional compounds such as lectins, protease inhibitors and the non-antinutritional component, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor may CX-6258 molecular weight have beneficial properties. Lectins have been associated with reducing certain forms of cancer, activating innate defense mechanisms and managing obesity. Protease inhibitors such as trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors have been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of certain cancers and

demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory properties. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor has been associated with a reduction in hypertension. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The thermomechanical and morphological properties of some epoxy blends modified with hyperbranched polymers are reported. The effects of pseudogeneration numbers, from the second to the fourth, selleck inhibitor were studied. All the hyperbranched polymers used had -OH end groups. The blends were thoroughly

characterized in both the unreacted and cured states. The unreacted blends, characterized by parallel plate rheometry and hot stage microscopy, revealed that pseudo-generation number can have a profound effect both on the reactivity and the phase separation behavior. Analysis of the cured samples was carried out through scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical tests, and fracture mechanics. The results supported some findings obtained from the analysis of the unreacted blends; and dynamic mechanical analysis helped shed more light on the phase separation behavior. Pseudo-generation number also influenced the glass transitions of the blends. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polyrn Sci 115: 1395-1406, 2010″
“Enzyme screens with Strep-tagged recombinant proteins and expression studies with the respective green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions have been employed to examine the functional activities and subcellular localization of members of the Arabidopsis glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily.

Results There were 3,727

Results There were 3,727 selleck products incidents over 4 years, with numbers rising annually at the approximate rate of 20%. Most involved nursing staff. Incidents occurred primarily on medical and surgical wards and were usually classified as minor. Physical or verbal assaults were most frequently reported.

Conclusion Anti-social behaviour appears to be increasing. Certain wards and categories of healthcare professionals are at particular risk. More research

is required to explain factors leading to such behaviour and optimum strategies for its active management.”
“A systematic investigation of the temperature characteristics of quantum dot lasers emitting at 1.3 mu m is reported. The temperature dependence of carrier lifetime, radiative efficiency, threshold current, differential efficiency,

and gain is measured, and compared to the theoretical results based on a rate equation model. The model accurately reproduces all experimental laser characteristics above room temperature. The degradation of laser characteristics with increasing temperature p53 inhibitor is clearly shown to be associated to the thermal escape of holes from the confined energy levels of the dots toward the wetting layer and the nonradiative recombination therein. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3176499]“
“Cartilage substitutes are needed to replace cartilage tissue, damaged in accident,, or by pathologies (e.g., osteoarthritis). VX-809 nmr Treatment by total hip replacement has disadvantages, particularly due to immunological reaction to the implant’s wear debris. One promising alternative is to replace damaged cartilage with substitutes based on hydrogel-type material, designed to mimic the structure and properties of cartilage. The development of such a substitute must consider a wide spectrum of requirements. In this study, we addressed one aspect of this development namely the preparation and. investigation of hydrogels exhibiting the required mechanical characteristics. To this aim, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels and amphiphilic

interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of PEG with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared and characterized for their mechanical and swelling properties. Twenty-seven types of hydrogels were synthesized, differing in their composition: PEG molecular weight, crosslink density, and PMMA volume fraction. The properties measured were water content, compression modulus, strength, fatigue durability, and poroelastic properties (hydraulic permeability and equilibrium modulus). All were investigated as functions of hydrogel’s composition. Results show that lower PEG M,,,, higher crosslink densities and higher PMMA fraction, all lead to higher modulus and lower water content, and that these properties can be controlled independently by proper choice of ingredients.

003), and APOA4 N147S and APOA5 S19W with systolic blood pressure

003), and APOA4 N147S and APOA5 S19W with systolic blood pressure (SBP), (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Puerto Ricans homozygous for the common allele of APOA1 -75,

APOA4 N147S and APOA5 S19W had lower WC and SBP when consuming <31% of total fat from energy, than participants with the minor allele. Participants heterozygous for APOC3 -640 had lower DBP at total fat intake >= 31% from energy.

Conclusion: SNPs in APOA1/C3/A4/A5, as modulated by dietary fat intake, appear to influence allostatic load parameters in Puerto Ricans. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Recently developed atrophic non-union models are a good representation of the clinical situation in which many non-unions develop. Based on previous

experimental studies with these atrophic non-union models, it was hypothesized that in order to obtain successful fracture healing, blood vessels, growth factors, and (proliferative) AZD5363 precursor cells all need to be present in the callus at the same time. This study uses a combined in vivo-in silico approach to investigate these different aspects (vasculature, growth factors, cell proliferation). The mathematical model, initially developed for the study of normal fracture healing, is able high throughput screening to capture essential aspects of the in vivo atrophic non-union model despite a number of deviations that are mainly due to simplifications in the in silico model. The mathematical model is subsequently used to test possible treatment strategies for atrophic non-unions (i.e. cell transplant at post-osteotomy, week 3). Preliminary in vivo experiments corroborate the numerical predictions. Finally, the mathematical model is applied to explain experimental observations and identify potentially crucial steps in the treatments and can thereby be used to optimize experimental and clinical studies in this Etomoxir cost area. This study demonstrates the potential of the combined in silico-in vivo approach

and its clinical implications for the early treatment of patients with problematic fractures.”
“Background and aims: Atherosclerosis is known to be an inflammatory disease and there is increasing evidence that chylomicron remnants (CMR), the lipoproteins which carry dietary fats in the blood, cause macrophage foam cell formation and inflammation. In early atherosclerosis the frequency of activated monocytes in the peripheral circulation is increased, and clearance of CMR from blood may be delayed, however, whether CMR contribute directly to monocyte activation and subsequent egress into the arterial wall has not been established. Here, the contribution of CMR to activation of monocyte pro-inflammatory pathways was assessed using an in vitro model.

Methods and results: Primary human monocytes and CMR-like particles (CRLP) were used to measure several endpoints of monocyte activation. Treatment with CRLP caused rapid and prolonged generation of reactive oxygen species by monocytes.

Our findings suggested pioglitazone

Our findings suggested pioglitazone Compound high throughput screening had a therapeutic potential in improving fibrinolytic activity, and consequently preventing thromboembolic complications of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.”
“Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of bad splits in sagittal split osteotomies (SSOs), performed at the same hospital, and if the occurrence was reduced over time because of technical progress and/or surgical experience. Bad splits were defined as buccal

or lingual plate fractures.

Study design. The files of all patients (n = 1008) who underwent bilateral or unilateral SSO between October 1989 and October 2009 were reviewed retrospectively.

Results. A bad split occurred in 14 SSO sites (14 of 2005 sites). No bilateral bad splits occurred. There was no notable decrease of bad splits over the 20 years. All bad splits were resolved perioperatively by plate-osteosynthesis Kinase Inhibitor Library without the additional need of intermaxillary

fixation. All patients with a bad split had a good and functional occlusion 6 months postoperatively. No infections occurred at the site of the bad splits. No bad splits occurred in patients younger than 20 years. No particular type of dental-facial deformity, or skeletal class according to the Angle’s classification could be correlated with cases of bad splits as a predisposing risk factor.

Conclusion. Even if precautions are taken, a bad split can occur during SSO of the mandible. This complication is manageable because of its low incidence (0.7 % of all SSOs) and uneventful healing. A significant decrease

in incidence did not occur during the 20-year period, and neither technical progress nor the surgeon’s experience further reduced the incidence of bad splits. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:430-435)”
“Background: Studies have demonstrated that patients with diets high in omega-3 fatty acids have a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular events. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular events. omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is a paucity of data examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on CRP levels. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial tested the hypothesis that treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated KU-55933 molecular weight fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) would reduce serum high-sensitivity CRP levels. Materials & methods: Fifty three patients with elevated baseline CRP (>= 3 mg/l) were randomized to n-3 PUFA (27 patients) or placebo (26 patients). Patients with active infection, inflammatory disease, baseline CRP >= 10 mg/l or those started on HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy during the study period were excluded. The primary end point was CRP level following 8 weeks of treatment. Results: After 8 weeks of treatment with the study drug, the median CRP level in the n-3 PUFA group was 3.4 mg/l compared with 4.0 mg/l in the placebo group (p = 0.36).

Thirty-two patients were scanned four times within a year post-LU

Thirty-two patients were scanned four times within a year post-LUTX, in a single-centre prospective study. HRCT lung images were reviewed, evaluated and scored by two observers, for ground-glass (GG) opacities, consolidation, septal thickening (ST) and pulmonary embolism. Image and PGD scores were compared in each patient. GG and consolidation changes were largely present up until

2 weeks post-LUTX, and markedly reduced by the 12th week. ST was predominantly found in patients with PGD. There were no vascular changes found at CT angiographies. The most severe cases of GG opacities and consolidation were found in patients with PGD. ST seems to be an important indicator of PGD. HRCT64-MSCT imaging may be a useful tool for the identification of pathological features of PGD not detected by classical evaluation in patients undergoing LUTX.”
“The number of patients suffering from trichloroethylene this website (TCE)-related severe skin

disorders with liver dysfunction has been increasing in developing countries in Asia, especially since the mid-1990s. Compound C chemical structure In Japan, five cases of this disease have been reported, but none since the 1990s. However, two additional cases were recently observed in Tokyo. The published work and our investigation indicated that oxidative metabolites of TCE, which might include trichloroacetylated-protein adducts, could induce a generalized skin eruption. Furthermore, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1301 and HLA-B*44 were identified as markers of individual susceptibility

to TCE-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (HS). Moreover, polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the major enzyme in TCE metabolism, appeared to be associated with TCE-induced HS. Interestingly, this disorder is quite similar to drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), also referred to as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), from the perspective of the onset of the reaction after exposure to TCE/drugs, clinical manifestations, blood examination and period of virus reactivation. This article MRT67307 cost reviews the similarity between TCE-related HS and DIHS/DRESS.”
“The study of the postmortem changes in essential tremor (ET) is in its infancy, although recent evidence points to a central role of the cerebellum, where Purkinje cell axonal swellings (“”torpedoes”") are significantly more common in ET than control brains. Yet, all existing studies have been confined to the cerebellar hemispheres, and whether there is a more widely distributed cerebellar problem is presently unknown. Our aims were to address whether: (1) ET cases have greater numbers of torpedoes in the vermis than controls, (2) there a correlation between the extent of vermal torpedo pathology and hemispheric torpedo pathology, and (3) vermal torpedo pathology is correlated with clinical features of the disease.

Interventions Twelve celiac plexus alcohol neurolytic procedures

Interventions. Twelve celiac plexus alcohol neurolytic procedures were performed for pain control after a positive diagnostic block. Materials and

Methods. Twelve patients with terminal visceral (mostly pancreatic) cancer who failed conservative measures

were managed by consecutive NCPB guided by computed tomography at the pain department of Beijing Xuanwu Hospital between January 2005 and June 2010. The present study evaluated the efficacy of consecutive NCPB technique with regard to pain relief, as well as its adverse effects LDK378 and complications.

Results. The efficacy of consecutive NCPB technique with regard to pain relief was observed by a marked decrease in the visual analog score and in opioid consumption, with preprocedural mean values dropping from (8.7 +/- 1.0) and (155 +/- 56) mg/day of morphine to (1.8 +/- 1.1) and (0) mg/day at the first postprocedural visit, respectively. These results persisted during the 6-month follow-up period or until death. Minor adverse effects (moderate diarrhea Selleckchem Taselisib and mild hypotension) were frequent (N = 3, and N = 4, respectively), and severe complications occurred in one patient with a transient paraparesis (N = 1).

No procedure-related mortality was observed.

Conclusions. The consecutive NCPB technique can provide analgesia and the alleviation of the secondary undesirable effects of analgesic drugs resulting from the decrease of morphine consumption in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. In the subject group, the reliability of its analgesic effect is high, with lower rate of severe complications.”
“Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of walking speed on ground reaction force (GRF) parameters and to explore inter- and intra-individual variability with unsupervised data collection in a commercial farm setting.

We used eight high producing loose-housed Holstein Friesian cows consistently scored sound,

with no veterinary treatment during the collection period. Cows walked freely (0.52-1.37 m/s) over a five force platform array, twice mTOR activation daily, following milking. GRF data were split into speed categories and temporal and kinetic gait parameters extracted. A general linear model was carried out to determine effects of speed.

Variation in parameters between cows is inconsistent, while between speed categories (containing data from multiple cows) the parameters which vary are consistent. Stance and stride time were reduced with increasing speed but no change in peak vertical GRF or duty factor was found. This ability to track parameters within an individual over time aids detection of subtle changes associated with lameness. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“AimTo assess the outcome of monochorionic diamniotic (MD) twins with the aid of the MD-twin score.

MethodsWe enrolled 112 MD-twin women in a tertiary perinatal center from 1997 to 2009.

Static cartilage models were created from high resolution threedi

Static cartilage models were created from high resolution threedimensional static MR data and accurately placed in their dynamic pose at each time frame based on the cine-PC (CPC) data. Cartilage contact parameters were calculated based on the surface overlap. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test and a one-sample repeated measures ANOVA. The sensitivity of the contact parameters to the known errors in the PF kinematics was determined.

Results: Peak mean PF contact area was 228.7 +/- 173.6 mm(2) at 40 degrees knee angle. During extension, contact centroid and peak strain locations tracked

medially on the femoral and patellar cartilage and were not significantly different from each other. At 25 degrees, 30 degrees, 35 degrees, and 40 degrees of knee extension, contact area was significantly different. Contact area and centroid selleckchem locations were insensitive to rotational and translational perturbations.

Conclusion: This study is a first step towards

unfolding the biomechanical pathways to anterior PF pain and osteoarthritis (OA) using dynamic, in vivo, and accurate methodologies. The database provides crucial data for future studies and for validation of, or as an input to, computational models. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Osteoarthritis Research Society International.”
“The anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanism of action of Gentiana striata Maxim. has been investigated. NSC23766 mw The most active phase, the ethyl acetate extract of Gentiana striata Maxim. (EGS), displayed potent

inhibitory activity on feet oedema of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) inflicted rats. This anti-inflammatory activity might be partly based on the notable reduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Six further compounds isolated from EGS have previously been reported as having anti-inflammatory activity.”
“Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage. While macroscale degradation of the this website cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) has been extensively studied, microscale changes in the chondrocyte pericellular matrix (PCM) and immediate microenvironment with OA are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to quantify ostearthritic changes in the micromechanical properties of the ECM and PCM of human articular cartilage in situ using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Method: AFM elastic mapping was performed on cryosections of human cartilage harvested from both condyles of macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic knee joints. This method was used to test the hypotheses that both ECM and PCM regions exhibit a loss of mechanical properties with OA and that the size of the PCM is enlarged in OA cartilage as compared to normal tissue.