Findings 693 households of index patients with MDR tuberculosis w

Findings 693 households of index patients with MDR tuberculosis were enrolled in the study. In 48 households, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from the index patient was XDR. Of the 4503 household contacts, 117 (2.60%) had active tuberculosis at the time the index patient began MDR tuberculosis treatment there was no difference in prevalence between XDR and MDR tuberculosis households. During the 4-year follow-up, 242 contacts developed active tuberculosis the frequency of active tuberculosis was nearly two times higher in contacts of patients with XDR tuberculosis

than it was in contacts of patients with MDR tuberculosis (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% CI 1.10-3.21). In the 359 contacts with active tuberculosis, 142 (40%) had had isolates tested for resistance Selleckchem RG-7388 against first-line drugs, of whom 129 (90.9%, 95% CI 85.0-94.6) had MDR tuberculosis.

Interpretation In view of the high risk of disease recorded in household contacts of patients with MDR or XDR tuberculosis, tuberculosis programmes should PI3K inhibitor implement systematic household contact investigations for all patients identified as having MDR or XDR tuberculosis. If shown to have active tuberculosis, these household contacts should be suspected as having MDR tuberculosis until proven otherwise.”
“Cholecystokinin modulates pain and anxiety via

its functions within brain regions such as the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The aim of this study was to examine the cellular actions of cholecystokinin on PAG neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro to examine the postsynaptic effects of cholecystokinin and its effects on synaptic transmission. Sulfated cholecystokinin-(26-33) (CCK-S, 100-300 nM), but not non-sulfated cholecystokinin-(26-33) (CCK-NS, 100-300 nM) produced an inward current in a sub-population of opioid sensitive and insensitive PAG neurons, which did not reverse over a range of membrane potentials. The CCK-S-induced current was abolished by the CCK1 selective antagonist devazepide (100 nM), but not by the CCK2 selective antagonists CI988 (100 nM, 1

mu M) and LY225910 (1 mu M). CCK-S, but not CCK-NS produced a reduction in the amplitude of evoked GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and an increase in the evoked DNA ligase IPSC paired-pulse ratio. By contrast, CCK-S had little effect on the rate and amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature IPSCs under basal conditions and when external K(+) was elevated. The CCK-S-induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (3 mu M), the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP (10 mu M) and the 1, 2-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL alpha) inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (10 mu M). In addition, CCK-S produced an increase in the rate of spontaneous non-NMDA-mediated, TTX-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs).

For gossypolone, the 50% effective dose was 90 mu g ml-1 of mediu

For gossypolone, the 50% effective dose was 90 mu g ml-1 of medium (165 mu mol l-1). For apogossypolone, the most active compound in

the study, the Trichostatin A order 50% effective dose was 19 mu g ml-1 (38 center dot 7 mu mol l-1). The presence of gossypol-related terpenoids appeared to stimulate production of A. flavus sclerotia, although replicate variability was so large that it was not possible to determine a significant correlation between the mass of sclerotia formed and compound growth inhibition.

Conclusions:

The quinone derivatives of gossypol, gossypolone and apogossypolone demonstrated significant fungal growth inhibitory activity against A. flavus.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

These gossypol derivatives may provide a new class of fungicide for use against the mycotoxigenic fungus A. flavus.”
“Little is known about why clinical depression feels so bad, perhaps because optimal neural circuit-based animal models of depression do not yet exist. Our goal here was to develop a strategy of inducing and measuring depressive-like states in the rat using neural circuits as both the independent and major dependent variables. We hypothesized that repeated electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) within the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) aversion circuits would lead to

a long-lasting suppression of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), a validated measure of positive social affect. Fifteen consecutive daily 10 min sessions of intermittent PAG-ESB reduced systematically evoked MEK162 ic50 50 kHz USVs for up to 29 days following termination of ESB treatment, along with altering traditional measures of negative affect, including behavioral agitation, sucrose intake, and decreased exploratory behavior. These findings suggest a new affective circuit-based preclinical model of depression. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:

This work describes the isolation and characterization of two new

alkaliphilic micro-organisms present in nejayote.

Methods and Results:

Samples of fresh industrial nejayote were plated on nejayote medium and incubated for 4 days at 37 degrees C. Isolates were identified based on morphological and physiological Decitabine manufacturer characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Two gram-positive strains, NJY2 and NJY4, able to hydrolyse starch, xylan, and gelatin were isolated from nejayote. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and phylogenetic studies indicate that the micro-organisms studied were closely related to members of the Bacillus flexus species. The strains were identified as facultative alkaliphilic salt tolerant bacteria. Isolate NJY2 produced cell associated phenolic acid esterases, able to release ferulic acid from nixtamalised corn bran and ethyl and methyl esters.

Conclusions:

The isolated strains of B. flexus NJY2 and NJY4 showed important physiological properties to produce high-value molecules from agroindustrial by-products.

Indeed, mTOR inhibitors appear to possess antiepileptogenic prope

Indeed, mTOR inhibitors appear to possess antiepileptogenic properties in animal models of acquired epilepsy

as well. Thus, mTOR dysregulation may represent a final common pathway in epilepsies of various causes. Therefore, mTOR inhibition is an exciting potential antiepileptogenic strategy with broad applications for epilepsy and could be involved in a number of treatment modalities, including the ketogenic diet. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical utility of rapamycin and other mTOR inhibitors for antiepileptogenesis, JPH203 concentration and to devise new therapeutic targets by further elucidating the signaling molecules involved in epileptogenesis. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Although the recommended target blood pressure for patients with chronic kidney disease is < 130/80 mm Hg, this is difficult to achieve by treatment with an angiotensin Selleckchem 17DMAG receptor blocker alone. Addition of either a calcium channel blocker or a diuretic is suggested as second-line medication; however, which combination is most beneficial for target-organ

protection remains unknown. Methods: SHR/NDmcr-cp rats were administered no medications ( control) or low-dose olmesartan for 2 weeks and then either olmesartan at an increased dose, azelnidipine, or the hydrochlorothiazide for 3 weeks. We

assessed oxidative stress in the kidney and aorta, and endothelial function. Results: Urinary protein excretion was lower in all treated rats than in control Etoposide chemical structure rats. Oxidative stress caused by activation of NAD(P)H oxidase was observed in the glomeruli and aorta of control rats and was significantly suppressed in the olmesartan/azelnidipine (Olm/Azl) groups. Combination therapy with olmesartan and hydrochlorothiazide (Olm/HCTZ) however failed to suppress oxidative stress. The Olm/Azl groups maintained the endothelial surface layer in the glomeruli and protected endothelial function in the aorta. Conclusion: In an animal model of metabolic syndrome, a combination of Olm/Azl is superior to a combination of Olm/HCTZ in terms of prevention of glomerular and vascular injuries. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Relatively little is known about the time course of the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (i.e., epileptogenesis) after brain injury in human patients, or even in animal models. This time course is determined, at least in part, by the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for acquired epilepsy. An understanding of the critical mechanistic features of acquired epilepsy will be useful, if not essential, for developing strategies to block or suppress epileptogenesis.

The extent of the GluA2 mRNA editing was 100% except in SH-SY5Y c

The extent of the GluA2 mRNA editing was 100% except in SH-SY5Y cells, which have a much lower level of ADAR2 than the other cell lines examined. The ADAR2 activity at the GluA2 pre-mRNA Q/R site correlated with the ADAR2 mRNA level relative to the GluA2 pre-mRNA. SH-SY5Y cells expressed higher level of the GluA2 mRNA in the cytoplasm compared with other cell lines.

These results suggest that Navitoclax the ADAR2 expression level reflects editing activity at the GluA2 Q/R site and that although the edited GluA2 pre-mRNA is readily spliced, the unedited GluA2 pre-mRNA is also spliced and transported to the cytoplasm when ADAR2 expression is low. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) catalyze oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate (ICT) into alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG). We report here the crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevesiae mitochondrial NADP-IDH Idp1p in binary complexes with coenzyme NADP, or substrate ICT, or product AKG, and in a quaternary complex with NADPH, AKG, and Ca(2+), which represent different enzymatic

states during the catalytic reaction. Analyses of these structures identify this website key residues involved in the binding of these ligands. Comparisons among these structures and with the previously reported structures

of other NADP-IDHs reveal that eukaryotic NADP-IDHs undergo substantial conformational changes during the catalytic reaction. Binding or release of the ligands can cause significant conformational changes of the structural Org 27569 elements composing the active site, leading to rotation of the large domain relative to the small and clasp domains along two hinge regions (residues 118-124 and residues 284-287) while maintaining the integrity of its secondary structural elements, and thus, formation of at least three distinct overall conformations. Specifically, the enzyme adopts an open conformation when bound to NADP, a quasi-closed conformation when bound to ICT or AKG, and a fully closed conformation when bound to NADP, ICT, and Ca(2+) in the pseudo-Michaelis complex or with NADPH, AKG, and Ca(2+) in the product state. The conformational changes of eukaryotic NADP-IDHs are quite different from those of Escherichia coli NADP-IDH, for which significant conformational changes are observed only between two forms of the apo enzyme, suggesting that the catalytic mechanism of eukaryotic NADP-IDHs is more complex than that of EcIDH, and involves more fine-tuned conformational changes.”
“Inhibition of farnesyltransferase (FT) activity has been associated with in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemia activity.

Materials and Methods: From February 2003 to October 2005, 46 pat

Materials and Methods: From February 2003 to October 2005, 46 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in a controlled, prospective study. Patients were selleck evaluated before and 6 months after nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy using the UCLA-PCI urinary function domain and neurophysiological tests, including somatosensory evoked potential, and the pudendo-urethral, pudendo-anal and urethro-anal reflexes. Clinical parameters and urinary continence were correlated with afferent and efferent innervation of the membranous urethra and pelvic floor. We used strict criteria to

define urinary continence as complete dryness with no leakage at all, not requiring any pads or diapers and with a UCLA-PCI score of 500. Patients with a sporadic drop of leakage, requiring up to 1 pad daily, were defined as having occasional urinary leakage.

Results: Two patients

were excluded from study due to urethral stricture postoperatively. We evaluated 44 patients within 6 months after surgery. The pudendo-anal and pudendo-urethral reflexes were unchanged postoperatively (p = 0.93 and 0.09, respectively), demonstrating that afferent and efferent pudendal innervation to this pelvic region was not affected by the surgery. Autonomic afferent denervation of the membranous urethral mucosa was found in 34 patients (77.3%), as demonstrated by a postoperative increase in the urethro-anal reflex sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency (p<0.001 and 0.0007, respectively). Six of the 44 Isotretinoin patients used pads. One patient with more severe leakage check details required 3 pads daily and 23 showed urinary leakage, including 5 who needed 1 pad per day and 18 who did not wear pads. Afferent

autonomic denervation at the membranous urethral mucosa was found in 91.7% of patients with urinary leakage. Of 10 patients with preserved urethro-anal reflex latency 80% were continent.

Conclusions: Sensory and motor pudendal innervation to this specific pelvic region did not change after nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Significant autonomic afferent denervation of the membranous urethral mucosa was present in most patients postoperatively. Impaired membranous urethral sensitivity seemed to be associated with urinary incontinence, particularly in patients with occasional urinary leakage. Damage to the afferent autonomic innervation may have a role in the continence mechanism after nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy.”
“We developed novel lentiviral vectors by using “”Tet-Off system”" and succeeded in achieving high-level and neuron-specific gene transduction in vivo. One week after viral injection into the rat neostriatum, the GFP expression was almost completely neuron-specific and about 40 times higher than the expression of a conventional lentiviral vector.

The method is versatile for the routine analysis of in-gel trypti

The method is versatile for the routine analysis of in-gel tryptic digests thereby allowing for an improved protein sequence coverage. Furthermore, reliable protein identification can be achieved without the need of desalting sample preparation. We demonstrate the performance and the robustness of our method using commercially available reference proteins and automated MS and MS/MS analyses of in-gel digests from lung tissue lysate proteins separated by 2-DE.”
“Response

inhibition refers to the suppression of inappropriate or irrelevant responses. It has a central role in executive functions, and has been linked to a wide spectrum of prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence selleck kinase inhibitor from neuropharmacological studies has suggested that gene variants in the norepinephrine Ganetespib neurotransmission system make specific contributions to response inhibition. This study genotyped five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering the whole alpha-2B-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2B) gene and investigated their associations with response

inhibition in a relatively large healthy Chinese sample (N = 421). The results revealed significant genetic effects of the ADRA2B conserved haplotype polymorphisms on response inhibition as measured by stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) (F(2, 418) = 5.938, p = 0.003). Individuals with the AAGG/AAGG genotype (n = 89; mean SSRT = 170.2 ms) had significantly shorter SSRTs than did those with either the CCAC/AAGG genotype (n = 216; mean SSRT = 182.4 ms; uncorrected p = 0.03; corrected p = 0.09)

or the CCAC/CCAC genotype (n = 116; mean SSRT = 195.8 ms; corrected p<0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.51). This finding provides the first evidence from association research in support of a critical role of the norepinephrine neurotransmission system in response inhibition. A better understanding of the genetic basis of response inhibition would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient Carbohydrate or underdeveloped response inhibition as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 1115-1121; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.266; published online 4 January 2012″
“Plant-derived polyphenols such as curcumin hold promise as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. However, its development is plagued by poor aqueous solubility resulting in poor bioavailability. To circumvent the suboptimal bioavailability of free curcumin, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurct (TM)) that overcomes this major pitfall of the free compound. In this study, we show that NanoCurct (TM) results in sustained intrahepatic curcumin levels that can be found in both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. NanoCurct (TM) markedly inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis.

The M(r) of sea cucumber fucoidan could be reduced from 792 cente

The M(r) of sea cucumber fucoidan could be reduced from 792 center dot 6 kDa to at least 3 center dot 7 kDa by the crude intracellular enzyme of this strain.

Conclusions:

The marine bacterial strain CZ1127, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae, was Obeticholic clinical trial found to utilize various sea cucumber fucoidans and furthermore showed promise in sea cucumber fucoidan enzymatic degradation and

oligosaccharide preparation.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

The finding of a novel source can be applied in sea cucumber fucoidan enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, it is the first definite report of a bacterial strain that can utilize the fucoidans from various sea cucumbers.”
“Compared to automatic postural responses to external perturbation, little is known about anticipatory postural adjustments in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. In this study, we examined whether anticipatory activation of postural muscles would be observed before voluntary arm movement while standing in individuals with spastic diplegia. Seven individuals with spastic diplegia (SDCP(group),. 12-22 years) and 7 age- and gender-matched individuals without disability Daporinad cost (Control(group)) participated in this study. Participants performed bilateral arm flexion at maximum speed at their own timing while

standing, during which electromyographic (EMG) activities of focal and postural muscles were recorded. In both groups, the erector spinae (ES) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles were activated in advance of the anterior deltoid muscle (AD), which is a focal muscle of arm flexion. Although start times of ES and MH with respect to AD were

similar in the 2 groups, increases in EMG amplitudes of ES and MH in the anticipatory range from -150 ms to +50 ms, with respect to burst onset of AD, were significantly smaller in the SDCP(group) than in the Control(group). These findings suggest that individuals with spastic diplegia have the ability to anticipate the effects of disturbance of posture and equilibrium caused by arm movement and to activate postural muscles in advance of focal muscles. However, it is likely that the anticipatory increase in postural muscle activity is insufficient in individuals with spastic diplegia. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:

To old model the effect of water activity (a(w)) and concentration of undissociated lactic acid (HLac) on the time to growth (TTG) and the growth/no growth boundary of acid-adapted generic Escherichia coli, used as model organisms for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).

Methods and Results:

For each of two E. coli strains, the TTG in brain heart infusion broth at 27 degrees C was estimated at 30 combinations of a(w) (range 0 center dot 945-0 center dot 995) and concentration of HLac (range 0-6 center dot 9 mol m-3) by using an automated turbidity reader. Survival analysis was used to develop a model predicting the TTG and the growth/no growth boundary.

Salmonella, at population densities <10CFU l-1 in 10l of spike

Salmonella, at population densities <10CFU l-1 in 10l of spiked surface water, could be reliably (6/6) detected within 2days by combining TFF or MMS, with IMS Pathatrix and qPCR. The theoretical limit of detection for Salmonella is considered to be sufficiently sensitive to meet all the practical screening purposes for surface waters in an agricultural setting intended for application to edible horticultural crops. Significance and Impact of the Study Large-volume water samples may be screened for the presence of Salmonella both preseason Fludarabine in vivo and preharvest. This will provide better data from which to make risk management decisions to improve

fresh produce safety. The time required to complete screening (2days) will make it more practical to screen surface waters for Salmonella prior to use during produce production, to facilitate source tracking in root-cause determination or to determine risk associated with water nearby produce fields. The method enables the direct screening

for pathogens in a timely manner, which avoids the need to rely on indicator or index organisms to evaluate Everolimus molecular weight food safety risks. Use of this method has the potential to decrease the risk of in-field fresh produce contamination.”
“Estrogen may be involved in psychosis by an interaction with central dopaminergic activity. Aromatase knockout mice are unable to produce estrogen and have been shown to display altered behavioural responses and effects of the dopamine releaser, amphetamine. This study investigates the effect of gonadal status on amphetamine-induced c-fos expression in the brains of female aromatase knockout and wildtype mice. Six groups of mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or 5 mg/kg amphetamine. Fos

immunoreactivity not was assessed in the cingulate cortex, caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens. Aromatase knockout mice showed markedly reduced amphetamine-induced Fos immunoreactivity compared to wildtype mice. However, the amphetamine response was restored in aromatase-knockout mice after ovariectomy, which reduced this effect in wildtype controls. Estrogen supplementation reversed the effect of ovariectomy in wildtype mice but had no additional significant effect in aromatase-knockout mice. These results indicate that mechanisms involved in amphetamine-induced c-fos expression are altered in aromatase knockout mice and that the primary hormone involved in this effect is not estrogen, but may be another factor released from the ovaries, such as an androgen. These results provide new insight into the effect of gonadal hormones on amphetamine induced c-fos expression in this mouse model of estrogen deficiency. These results could be important for our understanding of the role of sex steroid hormones in psychosis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

LTNPs had more defective

LTNPs had more defective CB-5083 manufacturer nefs (interrupted by frameshifts or stop codons), but on a per-patient basis there was no excess of LTNP patients with one or more defective nef sequences compared to the Ps (P = 0.47). The high frequency of amino acid replacement at residues S(8), V(10), I(11), A(15), V(85), V(133), N(157), S(163), V(168), D(174), R(178), E(182), and R(188) in LTNPs was also seen in permuted datasets, implying that these are simply

rapidly evolving residues. Permutation testing revealed that residues showing the greatest excess over expectation (A(15), V(85), N(157), S(163), V(168), D(174), R(178), and R(188)) were not significant (P = 0.77). Exploratory analysis suggested a hypothetical excess of frameshifting in the regions (9)SVIG and (118)QGYF among LTNPs. The regions V(10) and (152)KVEEA of nef were commonly deleted in LTNPs. However, permutation testing indicated that none of the regions displayed significantly excessive deletion in LTNPs. In conclusion, meta-analysis of HIV-1 nef sequences provides no clear

evidence of whether defective nef sequences or particular regions of the protein play a significant role in disease progression.”
“Two monoclonal antibodies (Nilo1 and Nilo2) were generated after immunization of hamsters with E13.5 olfactory bulb-derived mouse neurospheres. They are highly specific for neural stem and early progenitor cell surface antigens. Nilo positive cells present in the adult mouse subventricular Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor zone (SVZ) were able to initiate primary neural stem cell cultures. Moreover,

oxyclozanide these antibodies added to neuro-sphere cultures induced proliferation arrest and interfered with their differentiation. In the lateral ventricles of adult mice, Nilo1 stained a cell subpopulation lining the ventricle and cells located in the SVZ, whereas Nilo2 stained a small population associated with the anterior horn of the SVZ at the beginning of the rostral migratory stream. Co-staining of Nilo1 or Nilo2 and neural markers demonstrated that Nilo1 identifies an early neural precursor subpopulation, whereas Nilo2 detects more differentiated neural progenitors. Thus, these antibodies identify distinct neurogenic populations within the SVZ of the lateral ventricle. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Stress granules are sites of mRNA storage formed in response to a variety of stresses, including viral infections. Here, the mechanisms and consequences of stress granule formation during poliovirus infection were examined. The results indicate that stress granules containing T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and mRNA are stably constituted in infected cells despite lacking intact RasGAP SH3-domain binding protein 1 (G3BP) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4G.

To investigate the mechanism by which pUL78 contributes to viral

To investigate the mechanism by which pUL78 contributes to viral replication and pathogenesis, we generated a derivative of the TB40/E clinical isolate of HCMV that is unable C646 research buy to express the receptor. Consistent

with previous findings using laboratory strains of the virus, the mutant replicated normally in fibroblasts. Although laboratory strains are restricted to growth in fibroblasts, clinical isolates grow in many cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells, in which the pUL78-deficient TB40/E derivative exhibited a growth defect. Infection with the mutant virus resulted in a significant decrease in viral RNA and protein expression. Although there was no difference in binding of the virus to the cell, we detected a delay in the entry and subsequent delivery of virion DNA and protein to the nuclei of epithelial cells following infection with the UL78 mutant virus. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pUL78 supports infection at a point after binding but before entry in epithelial cells, a cell type important for in vivo viral replication and spread.”
“Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptors (Ephs) and their ligands Ephrins can affect axon

growth. To evaluate the efficacy of EphA4 knockdown on Schwann cell migration and peripheral nerve regeneration, we detected EphA4 levels in Schwann cells. To knock down the expression of EphA4 in Schwann cell, two independent small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed, and Schwann cell migration was examined. Four days after surgery, sciatic nerve sections of wild-type (WT) and EphA4(-/-) rats were

examined by immunofluorescence, Fer-1 datasheet and axonal outgrowth was analyzed. The EphA4 protein could be detected in Schwann cells from intact nerves. EphA4 mediates the inhibitory effect on Schwann cell migration, and EphA4 knock-down can strongly increase Schwann cell migration and peripheral nerve regeneration. Knocking-down the expression of EphA4 promotes peripheral axon growth in vivo. It may provide a potential strategy for the recovery of peripheral nerve injury. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. GBA3 With regard to current neurobiological theories, the aim of our study was to examine possible alterations of temporal and frontal lobe volume in panic disorder (PD).

Method. Seventeen in-patients with PD and a group of healthy control subjects (HC) matched for age and gender were investigated by quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Structures of interest were: the temporal lobe, the amygdala-hippocampus complex (AHC) and the frontal lobe. In addition, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5) was used for a more detailed assessment of possible volume alterations. Modulated grey matter (GM) images were used to test our a priori hypotheses and to present the volumetric results.

Results.