To reveal bound antibodies we used horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies. Blots were developed with enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) reagent (Pierce; Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA). To obtain semi-quantitative
estimates for the total tyrosine phosphorylation, it was quantified and densitometry analysis was performed using Tina 2·0 software (Raytest, Straubenhardt, Germany). Values were normalized to the intensity of actin bands. For comparisons of quantitative values we used the unpaired Student’s t-test. The frequency of autoantibodies in HAE patients and control group was compared using Fisher’s exact test. Two-tailed P-values of 0·05 or less were considered statistically significant. Data are expressed as mean values of MFI ± s.d. In 29 of the 61 (47·5%) patients, at least one of the tested autoantibodies was found in the serum, as detailed
in Table 1. We did Selleck Tigecycline not find any difference in gender ratio when HAE patients with autoantibodies were compared with those without autoantibodies [male (12 of 25), female (17 of 36)]. Additionally, we did not find a difference in the average mean of the complement 4 (C4) levels between these two groups of HAE patients [0·095 ± 0·05 versus 0·088 ± 0·05, P = not significant (n.s.)]. In the healthy control group, five of 50 (10%) had serum autoantibodies. This frequency is statistically lower compared to HAE patients [five of 50 (10%) versus 29 of 61 (47·5%), P = 0·0001]. Two had positive anti-nuclear antibodies (4%), two of 50 Phosphoglycerate kinase (4%) had anti-cardiolipin antibodies and in one serum we found positive anti-S. cerevisiae antibodies. Seven of 61 HAE patients (11·4%) suffered from the following selleck inhibitor immunoregulatory disorders; one patient had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), two patients had coeliac disease,
one patient had mixed connective tissue disease, one patient had systemic sclerosis, one patient had Crohn’s disease and one patient multiple sclerosis-like syndrome. Expression of CD69 and CD5 was found to be statistically higher on memory B cells (CD19+CD27+) from HAE patients compared to healthy controls (4·59 ± 4·41 versus 2·06 ± 1·81, P = 0·04, 8·22 ± 7·17 versus 3·65 ± 3·78, P = 0·05, respectively). Expression of CD21 on memory B cells was also significantly higher when compared to that on memory B cells from healthy controls (2·43 ± 0·54 versus 1·92 ± 0·41, P = 0·01). In contrast, we did not find any statistical difference in the expression of MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 on the memory B cells of the two groups. Results are summarized in Table 2. Memory B cells isolated from the HAE group expressed a significantly higher amount of TLR-9 (8·17 ± 4·1 versus 4·56 ± 1·6, P = 0·0027). Furthermore, the expression of TLR-9 in B cells from HAE patients who had autoantibodies was much higher than that of memory B cells from both the control group (10 ± 4·7 versus 4·56 ± 1·6, P = 0·0002) and from HAE patients without autoantibodies (10 ± 4·7 versus 5·8 ± 0·9, P = 0·036).