To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, the transport of carbohydrates into tomato fruits and the regulation of starch synthesis during fruit development in tomato plants cv. ‘Micro-Tom’ exposed to high levels of salinity stress were examined. Growth with 160 A1155463 mM NaCl doubled starch accumulation in tomato fruits compared to control plants during the early stages of development, and soluble sugars increased as the fruit matured. Tracer analysis with (13)C confirmed that elevated carbohydrate accumulation in fruits exposed to salinity stress was confined to the early development
stages and did not occur after ripening. Salinity stress also up-regulated sucrose transporter expression in source leaves and increased activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in fruits during the early development stages. The results indicate that salinity stress enhanced carbohydrate accumulation as starch during the early development stages and it is responsible for the
increase in soluble sugars in ripe fruit. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of salinity-stressed plants Bcl-2 apoptosis showed that the AGPase-encoding genes, AgpL1 and AgpS1 were up-regulated in developing fruits, and AgpL1 was obviously up-regulated by sugar at the transcriptional level but not by abscisic acid and osmotic stress. These results indicate AgpL1 and AgpS1 are involved in the promotion of starch biosynthesis under the salinity stress in ABA- and osmotic stress-independent manners. These two genes are differentially regulated at the transcriptional level, and AgpL1 is
suggested to play a regulatory role in this event.”
“We present a new way of forming phononic crystal waveguides by coupling a series of line-defect resonators. The dispersion proprieties of these coupled resonator acoustic waveguides (CRAW) can be engineered by using their geometrical parameters. We show that single-mode guiding over a large bandwidth is possible in CRAW formed in a honeycomb-lattice phononic crystal ALK inhibitor review slab of holes in zinc oxide. In addition, a finite length of CRAW structure acts as an efficient selective acoustic filter for Lamb waves. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3500226]“
“The arboreal species Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil, where the fruits, known by the common name of caja, are an important commercial commodity. We evaluated genetic variability among 32 caja accessions of the Germplasm Collection of Embrapa Meio-Norte using RAPD technique. Reaction conditions for efficient RAPD amplifications were optimized in preliminary tests, and primers were selected from a set designed by the University of British Columbia on the basis of high levels of polymorphism and adequate band resolution. The 21 primers employed in the final analysis produced 145 fragments, 79% of which were polymorphic.