Adv Mater 2010, 22:813 CrossRef 17 Cui X, Antonietti M, Yu S-H:

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preparation and characterization. DZ participated in the membrane chemical characterization. SC participated in the membrane dynamic characterization. RK participated in the beer-waste hydrothermal conversion. AK participated in the membrane chemical characterization. DC participated in the membrane preparation and characterization and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Review Introduction Nucleic acids (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)) encode the genomes of all living things on earth. Of these, DNA has become a key biological molecule in the study of genetics, medicine, and biotechnology. It possesses the natural ability to self-assemble and interacts with a wide range of molecules.

Mol Microbiol 2004,52(6):1691–1702 PubMedCrossRef 12 Papavinasas

Mol Microbiol 2004,52(6):1691–1702.PubMedCrossRef 12. Papavinasasundaram KG, Chan B, Chung JH, Colston MJ, Davis EO, Av-Gay Y: Deletion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pknH gene confers a higher bacillary load during the chronic phase of infection in BALB/c mice. J Bacteriol 2005,187(16):5751–5760.PubMedCrossRef

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EX 527 supplier protein kinase homologue of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is specifically inducible within the host infection site and is required for full virulence in neutropenic mice. J Bacteriol 1998,180(24):6764–6768.PubMed 18. Rajagopal L, Clancy A, Rubens CE: A eukaryotic type serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase in Interleukin-2 receptor Streptococcus agalactiae reversibly phosphorylate an inorganic pyrophosphatase and affect growth, cell segregation, and virulence. J Biol Chem 2003,278(16):14429–14441.PubMedCrossRef 19. Rajagopal L, Vo A, Silvestroni A, Rubens CE: Regulation of cytotoxin expression by converging eukaryotic-type and two-component signalling mechanisms in Streptococcus agalactiae . Mol Microbiol 2006,62(4):941–957.PubMedCrossRef

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5418 Å) The morphologies of the samples

were observed us

5418 Å). The morphologies of the samples

were observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Hitachi, S-4800, Chiyoda-ku, Japan) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, Philips, Tecnai F20, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV. The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms were performed on a full-automatic physical and chemical adsorption apparatus (Micromeritics, TriStar Fedratinib concentration II 3020, Norcross, GA, USA). Results and discussion Morphologies and catalytic activities of the as-synthesized magnetite and LFP-C Magnetite nanoparticles were widely studied as a Fenton-like catalyst due to the ferrous element, and we chose magnetite nanoparticles as a reference catalyst to evaluate the catalytic activity of LFP [9, 10]. In our experiment, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric solutions with a molar ratio of Fe(III)/Fe(II) of 2:1 at 80°C [27]. The FESEM result indicates that the as-synthesized magnetite nanoparticles have a quite small Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor & PRMT inhibitor average particle size of approximately 50 nm with a narrow size distribution (Figure 1a). In contrast, the as-received LFP-C has much bigger particle size than the as-synthesized

magnetite. The FESEM images of LFP-C shows that the commercial product of LFP-C has particle sizes from approximately 1 to approximately 4 μm with irregular morphologies (Figure 1b,c). The XRD analysis of Vorinostat price LFP-C indicates that Resminostat the commercial LFP-C is composed of a triphylite crystal phase (JCPDS card no. 00-040-1499) (Figure 1d). Figure 1 FESEM images and XRD pattern. FESEM images of the as-synthesized magnetite nanoparticles

(a) and (b, c) the LFP-C particles. (d) XRD pattern of the LFP-C particles. In order to evaluate the potential of LFP-C as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst, oxidative degradation experiments of R6G with hydrogen peroxide were performed. The degradation behaviors of R6G and magnetite catalysts were shown in Figure 2a. The concentration of the catalysts and hydrogen peroxide were 3 g/L and and 6 mL/L, respectively, and the pH of R6G solution was 7. The degradation efficiency of approximately 53.7% was achieved with magnetite nanoparticles after 1 h reaction. However, LFP exhibited the efficiency of 86.9% after 1 h, which is much higher than that of magnetite nanoparticles. This is somewhat surprising because the particle size (a few μm) of LFP is much larger than that (approximately 50 nm) of magnetite nanoparticles: larger particles lead to smaller surface area for the interfacial catalytic reaction, thereby worse catalytic activity.

J Hepatol 2008,48(Suppl 1):S104–112 PubMedCrossRef 13 Lotito SB,

J Hepatol 2008,48(Suppl 1):S104–112.PubMedCrossRef 13. Lotito SB, Actis-Goretta L, Renart ML, Caligiuri M, Rein D, Schmitz HH, Steinberg FM, Keen CL, Fraga CG: Influence of oligomer chain length on the antioxidant activity of procyanidins. Biochem Biophys

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in redox and detoxification. Clinica chimica acta 2003, 333:19–39.CrossRef 19. Serrander L, Cartier L, Bedard K, Banfi B, Lardy B, Plastre O, Sienkiewicz A, Forro L, selleck screening library Schlegel W, Krause Loperamide KH: NOX4 activity is determined by mRNA levels and reveals a unique pattern of ROS generation. Biochem J 2007, 406:105–114.PubMedCrossRef 20. Schmittgen TD, Zakrajsek BA, Mills AG, Gorn V, Singer MJ, Reed MW: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to study mRNA decay: comparison of endpoint and real-time methods. Anal Biochem 2000, 285:194–204.PubMedCrossRef

21. Nan YM, Wu WJ, Fu N, Liang BL, Wang RQ, Li LX, Zhao SX, Zhao JM, Yu J: Antioxidants vitamin E and 1-aminobenzotriazole prevent experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Scand J Gastroenterol 2009, 44:1121–1131.PubMedCrossRef 22. Martin GG, Atshaves BP, Huang H, McIntosh AL, Williams BJ, Pai PJ, Russell DH, Kier AB, Schroeder F: Hepatic phenotype of liver fatty acid binding protein gene-ablated mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2009, 297:G1053–1065.PubMedCrossRef 23. Rajaraman G, Wang GQ, Yan J, Jiang P, Gong Y, Burczynski FJ: Role of cytosolic liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular oxidative stress: effect of dexamethasone and clofibrate treatment. Mol Cell Biochem 2007, 295:27–34.PubMedCrossRef 24. Musso G, Gambino R, Cassader M: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease from pathogenesis to management: an update. Obes Rev 2010, 11:430–445.PubMedCrossRef 25.

5 102 @ ±1 Pt/A1/PCMO/Pt [16] Self-rectified 10 @ 1 V     10 @ 4

5 102 @ ±1 Pt/A1/PCMO/Pt [16] Self-rectified 10 @ 1 V     10 @ 4 NiSi/HfO x /TiN [24] Self-rectified >103   ~1.8 >103 @ ±1 This work TaN/ZrTiO x /Ni Ni/n+-Si ~2,300 @ 0.1 V ~0.75 V ~ −1 ~103 @ ±0.2 Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Contracts NSC 101-2628-E-007-012-MY3 and NSC 101-2120-M-009-004. References 1. Liu CY, Huang JJ, Lai CH, Lin CH: Influence of

embedding Cu nano-particles into a Cu/SiO 2 /Pt structure on its resistive switching. Nanoscale # randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Res Lett 2013, 8:156.CrossRef 2. Chang KC, Huang JW, Chang TC, Tsai TM, Chen KH, Young TF, Chen JH, Zhang R, Lou JC, Huang SY, Pan YC, Huang HC, Syu YE, Gan DS, Bao DH, Sze SM: Space electric field concentrated effect for Zr:SiO 2 RRAM devices using porous SiO 2 buffer layer.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8:523.CrossRef 3. Prakash A, Jana D, Maikap S: TaO x -based resistive Torin 2 switching memories: prospective and challenges. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8:418.CrossRef 4. Ismail M, Huang CY, Panda D, Hung CJ, Tsai TL, Jieng JH, Lin CA, Chand U, Rana AM, Ahmed E, Talib I, Nadeem MY, Tseng TY: Forming-free bipolar resistive switching in nonstoichiometric ceria films. Nanoscale Res Lett 2014, 9:45.CrossRef 5. Huang JJ, Kuo CW, Chang WC, Hou TH: Transition of stable rectification to resistive-switching in Ti/TiO 2 Pt oxide diode. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 96:262901.CrossRef 6. Park WY, Kim GH, Seok JY, Kim KM, Song SJ, Lee MH, Hwang CS: A Pt/TiO 2 /Ti Schottky-type Methane monooxygenase selection diode for alleviating the sneak current in resistance switching memory arrays. Nanotechnology 2010, 21:195201.CrossRef 7. Lee DY, Tsai TL, Tseng TY: Unipolar resistive switching behavior in Pt/HfO 2 /TiN device with inserting ZrO 2 layer and its 1 diode-1 resistor characteristics. Appl Phys Lett 2013, 103:032905.CrossRef 8. Shima H, Takano F, Muramatsu H, Akinaga H, Inoue IH, Takagi H: Control of resistance

switching voltages in rectifying Pt/TiO x /Pt trilayer. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 92:043510.CrossRef 9. Li YT, Long SB, Lv HB, Liu Q, Wang M, Xie HW, Zhang KW, Yang XY, Liu M: Novel self-compliance bipolar 1D1R memory device for high-density RRAM application. In IMW IEEE International Memory Workshop: May 26–29 2013; Monterey. USA: IEEE; 2013:184–187.CrossRef 10. Lee MJ, Seo S, Kim DC, Ahn SE, Seo DH, Yoo IK, Baek IG, Kim DS, Byun IS, Kim SH, Hwang IR, Kim JS, Jeon SH, Park BH: A low‒temperature‒grown oxide diode as a new switch element for high‒density nonvolatile memories. Adv Mater 2007, 19:73–76.CrossRef 11. Kang BS, Ahn SE, Lee MJ, Stefanovich G, Kim KH, Xianyu WX, Lee CB, Park Y, Baek IG, Park BH: High‒current‒density CuO x /InZnO x thin‒film diodes for cross‒point memory applications. Adv Mater 2008, 20:3066–3069.CrossRef 12. Lee WY, Mauri D, Hwang C: High-current-density ITO x /NiO x thin-film diodes. Appl Phys Lett 1998, 72:1584.CrossRef 13.

Table 1 Comparison of StO2 levels at presentation and after resus

Table 1 Comparison of StO2 levels at presentation and after resuscitation maneuvers. Injury Initial StO2 Resuscitation Maneuver Post resuscitation StO2 Bilateral lower extremity IED 60 2 LR, 2 PRBCs 78 IED blast, right leg, left flank 51 2 LR, 1 PRBCs 71 GSW left thigh 54 1 LR 88 Abdominal compartment syndrome 62 Open abdomen 91 Bilateral lower extremity IED 51 1 LR 76 GSW abdomen 50 1 LR 82 GSW right arm 55 0.5 LR (9 y/o) 76 Blast injury 1 CPR RSL-3 1 Eight patients with StO2 levels measured at presentation and after initial

resuscitation. LR: lactated ringers (this website expressed in liters); PRBCs: packed red blood cells (expressed in units); IED: improvised explosive device; GSW: gunshot wound; CPR: cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Case 1 A 36-year-old male was injured from an improvised explosive device (IED) and presented with near amputations of both lower extremities. He arrived at the emergency medical treatment area (EMT) with blood pressure (BP) of 110/70 mm Hg and heart rate (HR) of 120/min. His initial StO2 reading was 51% from the right thenar eminence. He received 1 liter of lactated ringers (LR) with an increase in StO2 to 76% and was taken to the operating room (OR) where he underwent a right below the knee amputation and debridement and external fixator placement

for a complex left tibia fracture. The next morning, the patient’s StO2 was noted to be low at 40%. His BP was 105/72 ITF2357 price mm Hg and HR was 130/min with hemoglobin of 8.9 g/dl. Over the next 2 hours, the patient received 300 cc of 25% albumin, 1 liter of LR, and 1 unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) with HR decreasing to 110/min, and BP increasing to 130/70 mm Hg, and urine output of 150 cc over the previous hour. StO2 increased to 73%. This patient’s post-injury course was long and complicated. After multiple operations including debridements and skin grafting, the patient was discharged from the hospital approximately 2.5 months after his initial injury. Case 2 A 24-year-old male was seen in the EMT after a gunshot wound (GSW) to the abdomen. His initial

vital signs included a BP of 90/60 mm Hg and HR of 120/min. His initial StO2 from the thenar eminence PIK3C2G was 50%. He received 1 liter of LR with an increase of his BP to 110/70 mm Hg and StO2 to 82%. He was taken to the OR where he was found to have a tangential transverse colon injury. He underwent a primary repair and recovered and was discharged from the hospital approximately 2 weeks post-injury. Case 3 A 20-year-old male presented to the EMT after a high-velocity GSW to the left hip. At the time of presentation, two peripheral intravenous (IV) lines, which had been placed in the field, were infiltrated. One wound was noted in the left lateral hip and the patient had a distended, tense, and tender abdomen. His initial BP was 56/30 mm Hg and HR was 150/min. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was 100% and thenar StO2 was 54%.

Especially when excluding any influence of PSII photochemistry by

Especially when excluding any influence of PSII photochemistry by adding

DCMU, the changes of the PSII antennae size upon state transition can be directly followed by changes of chlorophyll fluorescence yields (Finazzi et al. 2001a, b). These changes in fluorescence can be visualized by the abovementioned video imaging system, which has been described in detail, e.g., by Fenton and Roscovitine Crofts (1990) and by Kruse et al. (1999). This system significantly simplifies the whole screening procedure of even large Chlamydomonas GS-9973 price transformant libraries. The generation of the latter usually begins with transformation of the cells by a selectable marker gene. The transformed cells are then plated on selective agar plates. On these first plates, successfully transformed clones grow in unorganized patterns. Most screening procedures require the transfer of every single colony to new master plates in an organized raster, so that several thousand clones have to be transferred, though only a tiny fraction of them will turn out to have the desired phenotype. In contrast, the fluorescence imaging system allows screening the algal colonies already on the first, unorganized agar plates, given that the colonies have approximately the same size, which usually is the case. Furthermore, the strategies used in order to force C. reinhardtii cells into state 1 or state

2 are applicable on whole agar plates. Fleischmann et al. (1999) plated the transformed cells directly on TAP agar plates containing

DCMU and incubated the plates in low MK0683 light (6 μE m−2 s−1). As mentioned above, the inhibition of PSII photochemistry allows to directly concluding the state from PSII fluorescence at room temperature. In these DCMU-treated algal colonies, state 1 could then easily be achieved cAMP by illuminating the cells with white light, resulting in the oxidation of the PQ pool by PSI activity. State 2 was achieved by making use of the fact that anaerobic and dark-incubated C. reinhardtii cells have a reduced PQ pool and therefore shift to state 2 (Wollman and Delepelaire 1984). With an appropriate setup, whole Petri dishes can be flushed with N2 in the dark, forcing the algal colonies into state 2 (Fleischmann et al. 1999). Applying these treatments to the agar plates harboring Chlamydomonas transformant colonies, fluorescence pictures of the whole plates can be recorded and numerically subtracted, so that the fluorescence difference of each colony provides a measure of state transition. While C. reinhardtii wild-type colonies display strong signals, strains deficient in state transitions show weak or nearly undetectable signals (Fleischmann et al. 1999). Kruse et al. (1999) used a similar technical setup, but applied a different strategy to induce state transitions in the microalgae.

No significant differences were observed for the bifidobacterial

No significant differences were observed for the bifidobacterial ALK inhibitor drugs sub-community between the two groups of children using both HITChip and qPCR analyses (Additional file 6). The comprehensive list of phylum-like and genus-like level data and p-values obtained by statistical analyses are presented in Additional file 7 and Additional file 8, respectively. Notably, an indication towards altered microbiota

composition in children with eczema was already identified at 6 months, although the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (MCPP, p=0.35). A higher abundance of the Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria was observed in infants with eczema than healthy controls (mean relative abundances 45.1% and 39.1%, respectively, p= 0.50). L. rhamnosus GG supplementation in

early infancy has minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition When comparing the levels of HITChip signals between children from the placebo group and those who had received L. rhamnosus GG for their first 6 months of life, no statistically significant differences were observed at the age of 6 months. However, the supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG showed effects on three genus-like bacterial groups at the age of 18 months i.e. a year after the GW-572016 manufacturer cessation of the probiotic supplementation. The children that had received L. rhamnosus GG had higher levels of the butyrate-producing Cell Cycle inhibitor groups Anaerostipes caccae et rel (LGG 2.89 ± 2.13% and placebo 1.18 ± 0.91% of the total microbiota, p=0.03) and Eubacterium ventriosum et rel (LGG 0.17 ± 0.11% and placebo 0.11 ± 0.07 of the total microbiota, p=0.04) than those of placebo group (Additional file 9). Moreover, the placebo group children had higher levels of Clostridium difficile

et rel at 18 months of age as compared to the LGG group children (1.19 ± 0.85% and 0.78 ± 0.60%, respectively, p=0.047). The comprehensive list of phylum-like and genus-like level data and p-values obtained by statistical analyses are presented in Additional file 7 and Additional 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase file 8, respectively. The effect of the probiotic supplementation on the microbiota composition within the group of healthy children or the group of children with eczema was not addressed due to the small number of subjects. Discussion We used a high-throughput phylogenetic microarray to reveal alterations in the gut microbiota composition throughout early childhood. The used microarray has been developed and validated for determining the microbiota diversity and evaluating the relative proportions of genus-like or higher (phylum-like) phylogenetic groups [28].

DNase assays showed more activity in the codY mutant, which was c

DNase assays showed more activity in the codY mutant, which was consistent with the

increase Selleckchem GSK1210151A in SdaB production (Table 1, Figure 3). Previously, SdaB was reported to be the protein primarily responsible for extracellular DNase activity in a serotype M89 strain based on the absence of activity following sdaB inactivation [33]. The genome of strain NZ131 encodes four proteins with hyaluronidase motifs; two of these, Spy49_0785 and Spy49_1465c, are encoded by prophage and do not possess a signal peptide. Presumably, these proteins are released from the cell upon phage-induced lysis and degrade the hyaluronic capsule of S. pyogenes, which facilitates phage attachment and infection of streptococci [34, 35]. Among the two chromosomally encoded proteins with hyaluronidase motifs, Spy49_1236c (designated Spy_1600 in strain SF370), which does not possess a signal peptide was recently discovered to have β-N-acetylgucosaminidase activity and not hyaluronidase activity [36]. Thus the only gene product possessing a signal peptide was the hyaluronidase

protein (SpyM49_0811c) detected in supernatant {Selleck Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleck Antidiabetic Compound Library|Selleck Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleck Antidiabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Antidiabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|buy Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library ic50|Anti-diabetic Compound Library price|Anti-diabetic Compound Library cost|Anti-diabetic Compound Library solubility dmso|Anti-diabetic Compound Library purchase|Anti-diabetic Compound Library manufacturer|Anti-diabetic Compound Library research buy|Anti-diabetic Compound Library order|Anti-diabetic Compound Library mouse|Anti-diabetic Compound Library chemical structure|Anti-diabetic Compound Library mw|Anti-diabetic Compound Library molecular weight|Anti-diabetic Compound Library datasheet|Anti-diabetic Compound Library supplier|Anti-diabetic Compound Library in vitro|Anti-diabetic Compound Library cell line|Anti-diabetic Compound Library concentration|Anti-diabetic Compound Library nmr|Anti-diabetic Compound Library in vivo|Anti-diabetic Compound Library clinical trial|Anti-diabetic Compound Library cell assay|Anti-diabetic Compound Library screening|Anti-diabetic Compound Library high throughput|buy Antidiabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library ic50|Antidiabetic Compound Library price|Antidiabetic Compound Library cost|Antidiabetic Compound Library solubility dmso|Antidiabetic Compound Library purchase|Antidiabetic Compound Library manufacturer|Antidiabetic Compound Library research buy|Antidiabetic Compound Library order|Antidiabetic Compound Library chemical structure|Antidiabetic Compound Library datasheet|Antidiabetic Compound Library supplier|Antidiabetic Compound Library in vitro|Antidiabetic Compound Library cell line|Antidiabetic Compound Library concentration|Antidiabetic Compound Library clinical trial|Antidiabetic Compound Library cell assay|Antidiabetic Compound Library screening|Antidiabetic Compound Library high throughput|Anti-diabetic Compound high throughput screening| preparations from the wild-type and codY mutant. Deletion of codY decreased the abundance of two positional variation of HylA, as detected in 2-DE gels, which correlated with results obtained with SDS-PAGE. Hyaluronidases are often thought of as spreading factors, facilitating dissemination of the pathogen; however, in murine models of S. pyogenes infection, HylA did not promote pathogen dissemination directly, but did increase the permeability of host tissue, which is likely to enhance toxin dissemination and thereby contribute to virulence [3]. Conclusions In summary, a proteomic approach was used to assess the role CodY plays in the regulation of S. pyogenes exoproteins. The results confirmed, at the protein level, that CodY regulates several well-studied exoproteins, BIX 1294 purchase including the many SpeB protease and CAMP factor. In addition, we discovered new CodY regulated exoproteins including HylA. The results

are important in understanding the roles various regulatory proteins play in controlling exoprotein production, which is intimately linked to the ability of the pathogen to adapt, and therefore survive, changing conditions encountered in its human host. Methods Strains and culture conditions S. pyogenes strain NZ131 (serotype M49) and a codY mutant were previously described [18]. To construct the mutant strain, DNA flanking the codY open reading frame was amplified by PCR and cloned into pFW6 such that the fragments flanked the aad9 gene, which confers resistance to spectinomycin [37]. After linearization, the recombinant plasmid (pFW6’aat-pncA) was used to transform NZ131. Transformants were obtained following deletion of the codY gene and substitution with the aad9 gene [18].

Table 1 SiNWs/SiNWs micro-ultracapacitors surface capacitances ob

Table 1 SiNWs/SiNWs micro-ultracapacitors surface capacitances obtained from the galvanostatic charge/discharge (Formula 2) at 5 and 10 μA cm −2 SiNWs length (μm) j = 5μA cm−2 j = 10μA cm−2 C (μF cm−2) C (i μm)/C (5 μm) C (μF

cm−2) C (i μm)/C (5 μm) 5 3.6   3.5   10 7.2 2.0 6.7 1.9 20 9.7 2.7 9.5 2.7 Formula 1 with Δj as the current density differences inside the cyclic voltammetry curve and v as the scan rate. Formula 2 with j the current density used for the galvanostatic charge/discharge. Devices with the same SiNWs length show similar capacitance values for both current densities. As noticed on the curves, capacitance increases with SiNWs length. This increase is proportional to the length increase between 5 (≈3.5 μF cm−2) and 10 μm SiNWs (≈7 μF cm−2), but not between 5 and 20 μm (≈9.5 μF cm−2). This can be explained by selleck chemical accessible surface losses due to SiNWs constriction when substrates are stacked together. New devices avoiding this constriction will be designed and evaluated. Although previous works on the use of silicon-based electrodes selleck chemicals for supercapacitor [10–15] reported better capacitance values, the SiNWs length influence in two electrodes devices has never been investigated. Moreover, it could be improved up to the capacitance wanted by increasing the SiNWs length and density and by improving the device design. In fact, SiNWs growth by CVD

enables to tune the NWs lengths without any limitation. Choi et Loperamide al. [10] reported the use of porous SiNWs as electrode for supercapacitor in such devices but with Li+ containing electrolyte. Their capacitance is expressed only in force per gram, so no accurate comparison with our results is possible. Desplobain et al. [12]

have obtained devices with 320 μF cm−2 capacitance by using gold-coated porous silicon but in aqueous electrolyte. SiNWs coated with NiO [13, 14] or SiC [15] shows promising performances and cycling ability, but silicon is not the active material and their performances have not been evaluated in the two electrodes devices. After 250 cycles at ±5 μA cm−2, each device shows less than 2% capacitance loss (1.8% for 20-μm SiNWs, 0.5% for 10-μm SiNWs, 0.7% for 5-μm SiNWs, and 0.5% for bulk silicon) (Figure 3). Whatever the length, SiNWs are stable after these cycling experiments, as observed on post-experimental SEM images (Figure 4). The top bending that can be observed is due to electrostatic forces occurring during the sample washing with organic solvents before the SEM observation. Due to the moderate surface capacitance, 20-μm SiNWs-based microdevice only stores 5 μJ cm−2, i.e., few milliwatts per square centimeter. However, the interest of the device is more directed toward the power density which reaches 1.4 mWcm−2, which is close to the one of the 5-μm thick activated carbon supercapacitor (5 mW cm−2) [7].