Some nanotube applications as artificial implants are summarized

Some nanotube applications as artificial implants are summarized in

Table 4. Table 4 Application of nanotube as artificial implants CNT type Natural or synthetic materials type Cell or tissue type Properties Reference(s) Porous SWCNT Polycarbonate membrane Osteoblast-like cells Increase lamellipodia (cytoskeletal) extensions, and lamellipodia extensions [71] SWCNT-incorporated Chitosan scaffolds C2Cl2 cells /C2 myogenic cell line Cell growth improvement [72] MWCNT Collagen sponge honeycomb scaffold MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblast-like cell line Increase cellular adhesion and proliferation [73] MWCNT Polyurethane Fibroblast cells Enhance interactions between the cells and the polyurethane surface [74] SWCNT Alginate Rat heart endothelial cell Enhance cellular adhesion and proliferation [75] MWCNT Poly(acrylic acid) Human embryonic stem H 89 in vivo cells Increase cellular differentiation toward neurons [76] NSC23766 datasheet SWCNT Propylene fumarate Rabbit tibia Support cell attachment and proliferation [77] Tissue engineering The aim of tissue engineering is to substitute damaged or diseased tissue with biologic alternates that can repair and preserve normal and original function. Major advances in the areas of material science and engineering have supported in the promising progress of tissue

regenerative medicine and engineering. Carbon nanotubes can be used for tissue engineering in four areas: sensing cellular behavior,

cell tracking and labeling, enhancing tissue matrices, and augmenting cellular behavior [78]. Cell tracking and labeling is the ability to track implanted cells and to observe the improvement of tissue formation in vivo and noninvasively. Labeling of implanted cells not only facilitates evaluating of the viability of the engineered tissue but also assists and facilitates understanding of the biodistribution, migration, relocation, and movement pathways of transplanted cells. Because of time consuming and challenge of handling in using of traditional methods such as flow Tofacitinib manufacturer cytometry, noninvasive methods are incoming popular methods. It is shown carbon nanotubes can be feasible as imaging contrast agents for magnetic resonance, optical, and radiotracer modalities. Another important application of carbon nanotubes in tissue engineering Glutamate dehydrogenase is its potential for measure of biodistribution and can also be modified with radiotracers for gamma scintigraphy. Singh et al. bound SWNTs with [79]. In and administered to BALB/c mice to evaluate the biodistribution of nanotubes [80]. The design of better engineered tissues enhances and facilitates with the better monitor of cellular physiology such as enzyme/cofactor interactions, protein and metabolite secretion, cellular behavior, and ion transport. Nanosensors possibly will be utilized to make available constant monitoring of the performance of the engineered tissues.

tabaci can affect the insects’ ability to tolerate synthetic pest

tabaci can affect the insects’ ability to tolerate synthetic pesticides [20, 21]. The diversity and infection Staurosporine status of other world whitefly populations have not been documented. In the framework of a large study to identify the status of whitefly BAY 11-7082 purchase pests in Croatia, we describe the distribution of whitefly populations in that country, their infection status by secondary symbionts, co-infections and spatial localization within the insects’ developmental stages. Interestingly, infection with secondary symbionts and localization patterns in B. tabaci differed in some cases from previously

published results. In T. vaporariorum, this is the first time in which such a study has been reported. Results B. tabaci distribution and infection by secondary symbionts Whitefly collections in Croatia were conducted in 2008-2009. Ten B. tabaci populations (Table 1) were collected only from the coastal part of the country because, surprisingly, B. tabaci was never found inland (the continental part), presumably due to the different climates (Figure 2). Interestingly, testing the collected populations revealed only the Q biotype. One population collected in the

learn more neighboring Monte Negro was identified as B biotype. Twenty individuals from each population were tested for the presence of the different symbionts known from whiteflies using genus-specific primers for each symbiont (Table 2). P. aleyrodidarum, the primary symbiont, was detected in all individuals tested and provided a control for the quality of the extracted DNA. Each box in Figure 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase 3 shows single and mixed infections detected in all of the individuals in a population. For example, the population collected from Turanj on poinsettia plants (population 4 in Table 1) contained only two individuals that were singly infected with Rickettsia, two individuals that harbored only Hamiltonella, one individual that harbored only Wolbachia and three individuals that harbored only Cardinium. This population also contained two individuals that were

doubly infected with Rickettsia and Hamiltonella, one individual that was doubly infected with Wolbachia and Cardinium, one individual that was infected with three symbionts–Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium, and one individual that showed the highest level of mixed infection with four symbionts–Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, Wolbachia and Cardinium. Among the 20 individuals tested from this location, seven did not contain any of the tested secondary symbionts. Fritschea was not detected in this or any other population tested in this study. Although the population from Turanj showed a high level of mixed infection, with one individual harboring four different symbionts, mixed infections with more than one symbiont were not common in many of the tested populations.

Conclusion We demonstrated that, SPEF with high repetition freque

Conclusion We demonstrated that, SPEF with high repetition frequency could also achieve similar levels of in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficiency which could be used to reduce unpleasant sensations that occurred in tumor electrical treatment. In addition, rich components of nanosecond pulse contained in SPEF with high frequency electromagnetic fields (5 kHz) could induce cell apoptosis and provided complementary antitumor effect for

the marginal regions with weak electric fields. Our research proposed potential applications and feasibility of using high frequency SPEF in clinical cancer treatment. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this study examined only in vitro and in vivo antitumor effect of SPEF with various frequencies. However, effects of pulse repetition frequencies on biomechanical properties of skeletal MS-275 concentration muscle and on pain perception threshold remained to be Evofosfamide chemical structure further clarified. In future study, in order to integrate current antitumor investigation with biomechanical experiment and extend its perspective clinical applications, we should take this limitation into consideration and try to perform in vivo biomechanical test and pain threshold measurement in response to SPEF with different frequencies. Acknowledgements This study was supported by Zhejiang

Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (to Xiao-Jun Yang) (General Program, Project No. Y206482). Moreover, it was also sponsored in part by two grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Key Program to Cai-Xin Casein kinase 1 Sun, Project No.50637020 and General Program to Bindarit manufacturer Li-Na Hu, Project No.30371619). References 1. Weaver JC: Electroporation of biological membranes from multicellular to nano scales. ITDEI 2003, 10: 754–768. 2. Weaver JC: Electroporation: a general phenomenon for manipulating cells and tissues. J Cell Biochem 1993, 51: 426–435.PubMed 3. Gothelf A, Mir LM, Gehl J: Electrochemotherapy: results of cancer treatment using enhanced delivery of bleomycin by electroporation. Cancer Treat Rev 2003,

29: 371–387.CrossRefPubMed 4. Davalos RV, Mir IL, Rubinsky B: Tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation. Ann Biomed Eng 2005, 33: 223–231.CrossRefPubMed 5. Edd JF, Horowitz L, Davalos RV, Mir LM, Rubinsky B: In vivo results of a new focal tissue ablation technique: irreversible electroporation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2006, 53: 1409–1415.CrossRefPubMed 6. Rubinsky B: Irreversible electroporation in medicine. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2007, 6: 255–260.PubMed 7. Schoenbach KH, Hargrave B, Joshi RP, Kolb JF, Nuccitelli R, Osgood C, Pakhomov A, Stacey M, Swanson RJ, White JA, et al.: Bioelectric effects of intense nanosecond pulses. ITDEI 2007, 14: 1088–1109. 8. Mi Y, Sun C, Yao C, Li C, Mo D, Tang L, Liu H: Effects of steep pulsed electric fields (SPEF) on mitochondrial transmembrane potential of human liver cancer cell. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2007, 2007: 5815–5818.PubMed 9.

PubMed 4 Chwastowski M: Wpływ suplementacji jabłczanem kreatyny

PubMed 4. Chwastowski M: Wpływ suplementacji jabłczanem kreatyny na kształtowanie

się wskaźników morfologicznej budowy ciała i wydolności fizycznej u lekkoatletów, sprinterów i długodystansowców. Doctoral dissertation, AWF Kraków; 2011. 5. Zając A: Wpływ suplementacji kreatyną i 3-hydroksy −3-metylomaślanem na moc anaerobową oraz skład ciała koszykarzy. AWF w Katowicach, Katowice; 2003. 6. Zając A, Poprzęcki S, Waśkiewicz Z: Żywienie i suplementacja MAPK inhibitor w sporcie. AWF w Katowicach, Katowice; 2007. 7. Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodvell VW: Harper’s Biochemistry. PZWL, Warszawa; 1996. 8. Zając A, Poprzędzki S, Czuba M, Szukała D: Dietetyczne i suplementacyjne wspomaganie procesu treningowego. Wyd, Katowice; 2010. AWF w Katowicach

9. Sterkowicz S, Maslej P: An evaluation of modern tendencies in solving judo fight. JudoInfo, URL: http://​judoinfo.​com/​research6.​htm 10. Thomas SG, Cox MH, LeGal YM, Verde TJ, Smith HK: Physiological profiles of the Canadian National Judo Team. Can A-769662 clinical trial J Sport Sci 1989,14(3):142–147.PubMed 11. Franchini E, Del Vecchio F, Sterkowicz S: A Special Judo Fitness Test Classificatory Table. Arch Budo 2009, 5:127–129. 12. Ross WD, Marfell-Jones MJ: Kinanthropometry. In Physiological testing of high-performance athletes. 2nd edition. Edited by: MacDougall JD, Wenger HA, Green HJ. Human Kinetics Books, Champain IL; 1991:223–308. 13. Hopkins WG: Selleckchem RepSox Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med 2000, 30:375–81.CrossRef 14. Weir JP: Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass Selleckchem Rucaparib correlation coefficientand the SEM. J Str Cond Res 2005,19(1):231–240. 15. Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Horswill CA, Stillman RJ, Van Loan MD, Bemben DA: Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol 1988,60(5):709–723.PubMed 16. Hattori K, Tatsumi N, Tanaka

S: Assessment of body composition by using a new chart method. Am Hum Biol 1997, 9:573–578.CrossRef 17. Kreider RB: Creatine, the next ergogenic supplement?. Sportsci Train & Techn; 1998. http://​www.​sportsci.​org/​traintech/​creatine/​rbk.​html 18. Mesa JLM, Ruiz JR, Gonzales-Gross MM: Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002,32(14):903–944.PubMedCrossRef 19. Bemben MG, Lamont HS: Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Sports Med 2005,35(2):107–125.PubMedCrossRef 20. Bar-Or O: The Wingate anaerobic test: An update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sports Med 1987,4(6):381–394.PubMedCrossRef 21. A Special Judo Fitness Test. URL: http://​www.​archbudo.​com/​text.​php?​ids=​252 22. Sterkowicz S, Garcià Garcià JM, Suay I, Lerma F: The importance of judo trainers’ professional activities. Arch Budo 2007, 3:57–61. 23. Franchini E, Takito MY, Kiss MAPDM, Sterkowicz S: Physical fitness and anthropometric differences between elite and nonelite judo players. Biol Sport 2005, 22:315–328. 24.

Recently, we have shown that the extent of systemic inflammation

Recently, we have shown that the extent of systemic inflammation of innate immune cells can be visualized by measuring the expression of activation markers on blood PMNs [9]. The most sensitive marker turned out to be the responsiveness of active FcγRII (CD32) on PMN’s for the innate immune stimulus fMLP [9, 10]. The most commonly used marker is MAC-1 (CD11b), which peaks between 6 and 18 hours after insult (i.e. trauma or surgery)[11]. In contrast to PMN’s, changes in activation of the systemic monocyte compartment can be determined by analyzing the percentage of circulating GW-572016 price HLA-DR positive monocytes [7]. Blood samples

were taken at two distinct time points: one hour prior to IMN and 18 hours after the intramedullary nail was introduced. To investigate the influence of IMN, patients were stratified by isolated femur fracture and femur fractures

in multitrauma. Patients were compared with healthy, age and gender matched controls as described previously (see Table 1)[9]. Table 1 Patient demographics.   Median (+ range) Number of patients (n) 38 Male/Female (n) 22/16 HKI-272 chemical structure Age (years) 30 (16-80) Injury Severity Score 13 (9-43) – Femur fracture (n = 23) 10 (9-19) – Multitrauma (n = 15) 29 (16-43) APACHE II Score 5 (0-24) Time on ICU (days) 0 (0-60) Time on ventilation (days) 0 (0-55) Packed red blood cells before first blood sample (units) 0 (0-22) Fresh frozen plasma before first blood sample (units) 0 (0-20) Trauma mechanism (n)      - MVA 29    - Fall of height 8    - Direct impact 1 Complications (n)      - No SIRS symptoms 14    - SIRS 17    - ALI/ARDS 7 Materials For analysis of PMN PCI-34051 cost receptor expression

by flowcytometry the following monoclonal antibodies were commercially purchased: FITC-labeled IgG1 negative control (clone DD7, Chemicon, Hampshire, United Kingdom), RPE-labeled IgG2a negative control (clone MRC OX-34, Montelukast Sodium Serotec, Dusseldorf, Germany) and RPE-labelled CD11b (clone 2LPM19c, DAKO, Glostrup, Denmark). An antibody, which recognizes an active FcyRII/CD32 (designated FcyRII*), is manufactured at the Department of Pulmonary Science at the University Medical Center Utrecht (MoPhab A27, UMCU, Utrecht, The Netherlands)[12, 13]. For analysis of monocyte HLA-DR expression by flowcytometry the following monoclonal antibody was commercially purchased: FITC-labeled HLA-DR (YE2/36-HLK, Serotec, Dusseldorf, Germany). Pmn and monocyte receptor expression The inflammatory status of a patient can be assessed by analyzing the expression of active FcyRII (FcyRII*) on PMNs in the peripheral blood [9]. A low expression of fMLP induced FcyRII* correlates with increased inflammation. This approach has been validated in a previous study [9]. The expression of fMLP induced FcyRII* was compared with a more common activation marker MAC-1 (CD11b)[14].

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008, 294:R1117–1129 PubMe

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008, 294:R1117–1129.PubMedCrossRef 77. Saarni SE, Rissanen A, Sarna S, Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J: Weight cycling of athletes and subsequent weight gain in middleage. Int J Obes 2006, 30:1639–1644.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions

ETT conceived of the review topic and drafted the manuscript. AES conceived, drafted and revised the manuscript. LEN helped to draft and revise the manuscript. All GSK1904529A supplier authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer this website deaths in women in developing countries. It is obviously that many genetic and epigenetic alternations occur during cervical tumorigenesis. Among those changes, aberrant promoter methylation of tumor-suppressor genes gives rise to its silencing functions and results in the significant carcinogenesis

of cervical cancer. Currently, the known repressor genes are related to cervical cancer including CCNA1, CHFR, FHIT, PAX1, PTEN, SFRP4, TSLC1 and etc [1]. All these genes mentioned above have performed a wide variety of functions to regulate the transcription and expression, any of which down-regulation as well as promoter hypermethylation will lead to the precursor lesions in cervical

development and malignant transformation. DNA methylation is catalyzed by several DNA methyltransferases, MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit including DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and etc. DNMT1 is responsible for precise duplicating and maintaining the pre-existing DNA methylation patterns after replication. As reported by Szyf [2], DNMT1 inhibited the transcription of tumor suppressor genes and facilitated the formation of tumorigenesis, which linked to the development of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, Inhibition of DNMT1 activity could reduce hypermethylation of repressive genes and promote its re-expression, and reverse phenotype of malignant tumor. Thus, specific inhibition of DNMT1 could be one strategy for cervical therapy. In our study, we detected the demethylation and re-Blasticidin S solubility dmso expression levels of seven cervical cancer suppressor genes with DNMT1 silencing in Hela and Siha cells. The aim was to elucidate the relations between DNMT1 and abnormal methylation of these genes’ promoter as well as the malignant phenotype of tumor cells, which might contribute to the investigations of functions and regulation roles of DNMT1 in cervical cancer. Materials and methods Cell culture and transfection The Hela and Siha human cervical cancer cells lines were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). Lipofectamine TM2000 was purchased from Invitrogen Co.

Maturitas 55:270–277PubMedCrossRef 38 Whitten PL, Patisaul HB (2

Maturitas 55:270–277PubMedCrossRef 38. Whitten PL, Patisaul HB (2001) Cross-species and interassay comparisons of phytoestrogen action. Environ Health Perspect 109(Suppl

1):5–20PubMed 39. Tsai KS, Hsu SH, Cheng JP, Yang RS (1997) Vitamin D stores of urban women in Taipei: effect on bone density and bone turnover, and seasonal variation. Bone 20:371–374PubMedCrossRef 40. Lee MS, Li HL, Hung TH, Chang HY, Yang FL, Wahlqvist ML (2008) Vitamin D intake and its food sources in Taiwanese. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17:397–407PubMed 41. Zhang X, Shu XO, Li H, Yang G, Li Q, Gao YT, Zheng W (2005) Prospective cohort click here study of soy food consumption and risk of bone fracture among postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 165:1890–1895PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction Recently, Lee et al. [1] have described a novel function of the skeleton on energy metabolism. Specially, they demonstrated that the osteoblast-specific protein, osteocalcin, is involved in glucose

metabolism by increasing selleck products insulin secretion and cell proliferation in pancreatic β-cells and improving insulin sensitivity by upregulating the expression of an insulin-sensitizing adipokine (the adiponectin gene) in adipocytes. Subsequent human studies, including our own work, have confirmed the previous report [2–10]. Collectively, these human studies have shown that the serum osteocalcin concentration is negatively associated with the plasma glucose level and body check details fat mass [3, 5–7] and positively associated with insulin secretion [4, 8], lower insulin resistance [5–9], and serum

adiponectin concentration [3, 9]. In addition, Kanazawa et al. [3] showed that the serum osteocalcin level is negatively associated with the brachial-ankle SDHB pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness and suggested that osteocalcin might, thus, be linked to atherosclerosis. To date, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values have mainly been used to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity and the involvement of osteocalcin on glucose metabolism. However, the HOMA β-cell function index (HOMA-B%) is proportional to the fasting insulin level and is expected to be inversely related to insulin sensitivity in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and thus, adjustment for insulin sensitivity is necessary [11]. Also, the agreement between homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), an indicator of insulin resistance, and clamp-measured insulin sensitivity is controversial, ranging from very good to nonexistent [12]. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the association between osteocalcin and insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity with more valid methods. In addition, it remains uncertain whether or not the insulin-sensitizing and glucose-lowering effects of osteocalcin are truly mediated by upregulation of the adiponectin gene in humans.

The lane headings showed the time post-infection in hours Co-loc

The lane headings Proteases inhibitor showed the time post-infection in hours. Co-localization of host AST, GroEL and viral VP371 proteins during bacteriophage infection To characterize the VP371-GroEL-AST interactions during GVE2 infection, these three proteins were labeled and examined using immunofluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the host AST, GroEL, and viral VP371 proteins were co-localized

in the GVE2-infected Geobacillus sp. E263 (Figure 3A). In the virus-free Geobacillus sp. E263, however, the AST and GroEL were bound to each other (Figure 3A), while no signal was observed in the GST control and no obvious co-localization was found between the GST-MreB control and GroEL proteins (Figures 3B and 3C). Considering Dibutyryl-cAMP mouse the importance of the VP317 and AST proteins in the GVE2 infection [5, 25], the immunofluorescence microscopy results suggested that the VP371-

GroEL-AST complex might be involved in the bacteriophage infection in high temperature environment. Figure 3 Co-localization of host aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GroEL, and viral VP371 in Geobacillus LY2874455 purchase sp. E263. The host bacteria were challenged with GVE2. At different time post-infection, the GVE2-infected Geobacillus sp. E263 was labeled with the antibodies against the AST, GroEL, or VP371 (A). The GST (B) and the GST-MreB (C) were used as controls to detect the nonspecific co-localization with GroEL at 2 h post-infection. The bacteria were examined under a fluorescence microscope. The lane headings indicated the labeled proteins. The numbers showed the time post-infection in hours. Thermodynamic characterization of the VP371-GroEL-AST interactions The binding properties of the interactions in the VP371-GroEL-AST linear complex were characterized by ITC. Figure 4 showed a thermogram for all 3 kinds of protein–protein combinations and binding isotherms only for the valuable interaction (AST-GroEL or VP371-GroEL).

Figure 4 Thermodynamic characterization of the VP371-GroEL-aspartate aminotransferase (AST) interactions. The purified proteins of VP371-GroEL-AST linear complex and GST as control group were combined for isothermal titration calorimetry to measurements. The experiment was performed at 25°C in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) with 10-μL injections. (A) Thermogram (left) and binding isotherm (right) for the interaction between AST and GroEL. Concentrations of AST and GroEL were 44.5 and 8.5 μM, respectively. (B) Thermogram (left) and binding isotherm (right) for the interaction between VP371 and GroEL. Concentrations of VP371 and GroEL were 38.5 and 6.5 μM, respectively. (C) Thermogram for the titrations of 38.5 μM VP371 to 7 μM AST, 44.5 μM AST to 8.5 μM GST, 38.5 μM VP371 to 6.5 μM GST, and 44.5 μM GST to8.5 μM GroEL. (D) Thermodynamic parameters for binding of aspartate aminotransferase-GroEL and VP371-GroEL at different temperatures. All experiments were performed in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) using isothermal titration calorimetry.

Scanning electron microscopy image and Raman micromapping of tigh

Scanning electron microscopy image and Raman micromapping of tightly bound agglomerates of gold nanostars and J-aggregates of JC1 dye are given in the left and the right insets, respectively. The formation of the hybrid structures of two constituent compounds has been further confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements using a confocal Raman microscopy setup (Alpha300, 600 mm−1 grating, 3 cm−1 spectral resolution, continuous wave laser excitation at 532 nm, WITec, Ulm, Germany), as the hot spots provided by sharp tips of agglomerated Au nanostars are expected to enhance Raman scattering response of the attached organic compounds [18]. Indeed, the SERS spectrum

of the hybrid nanostructures of gold nanostars and the JC1 J-aggregates (red curve in Figure 3) AZD8931 shows identical but by more than an order of magnitude enhanced features as compared to the conventional Raman spectrum of J-aggregates (black

curve in Figure 3). SC79 mw Raman micromapping of hybrid gold nanostars/J-aggregate (JC1) complexes dispersed over a glass slide (Figure 3, right inset) directly demonstrates the strong enhancement of the Raman signal at the location of agglomerates. Results and discussion The absorption spectrum of Au nanostars exhibits a broad, intense band centered at 623 nm, along with a less intense shoulder at 827 nm (Figure 4a, black curve). J-aggregates of JC1 show a narrow absorption band (J-band) at 595 nm with a full width at half maximum of 7 nm, alongside

with a broader absorption band, positioned at the lower wavelength side from the J-band (at 500 nm) which we assign to the absorption of JC1 see more monomers (Figure 4c) [25]. JC1 dye has extremely poor water solubility, which favors the formation of J-aggregates even at 0.1 μM concentration. For this reason, the peak associated with J-aggregates is always present in the spectra of aqueous solution of JC1, which makes it difficult to measure the absorption spectrum of the dye monomers alone [25]. To ensure that the 500-nm peak assignment to monomer absorption is consistent, we have measured the spectrum of JC1 dye dissolved in methanol where (due to high solubility of the dye) its aggregation is inhibited and only the absorption band of dye monomers can be detected (peak at 517 nm in Figure 4c, isothipendyl dashed line). Taking into account small bathochromic shift caused by solvatochromism [26], this spectrum confirms the 500-nm band assignment. Figure 4 Absorption spectra of the aqueous solutions. (a) Gold nanostars (black) and their hybrid structures with J-aggregates of JC1 dye without (blue) and with PEI (green); (b) gold nanorods (violet) and their hybrid structure with J-aggregates of JC1 dye (cyan); (c) pristine J-aggregates of JC1 dye (red, solid line) along with the spectra of the solution of JC1 dye in methanol (red, dashed line).

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