Some nanotube applications as artificial implants are summarized in
Table 4. Table 4 Application of nanotube as artificial implants CNT type Natural or synthetic materials type Cell or tissue type Properties Reference(s) Porous SWCNT Polycarbonate membrane Osteoblast-like cells Increase lamellipodia (cytoskeletal) extensions, and lamellipodia extensions  SWCNT-incorporated Chitosan scaffolds C2Cl2 cells /C2 myogenic cell line Cell growth improvement  MWCNT Collagen sponge honeycomb scaffold MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblast-like cell line Increase cellular adhesion and proliferation  MWCNT Polyurethane Fibroblast cells Enhance interactions between the cells and the polyurethane surface  SWCNT Alginate Rat heart endothelial cell Enhance cellular adhesion and proliferation  MWCNT Poly(acrylic acid) Human embryonic stem H 89 in vivo cells Increase cellular differentiation toward neurons  NSC23766 datasheet SWCNT Propylene fumarate Rabbit tibia Support cell attachment and proliferation  Tissue engineering The aim of tissue engineering is to substitute damaged or diseased tissue with biologic alternates that can repair and preserve normal and original function. Major advances in the areas of material science and engineering have supported in the promising progress of tissue
regenerative medicine and engineering. Carbon nanotubes can be used for tissue engineering in four areas: sensing cellular behavior,
cell tracking and labeling, enhancing tissue matrices, and augmenting cellular behavior . Cell tracking and labeling is the ability to track implanted cells and to observe the improvement of tissue formation in vivo and noninvasively. Labeling of implanted cells not only facilitates evaluating of the viability of the engineered tissue but also assists and facilitates understanding of the biodistribution, migration, relocation, and movement pathways of transplanted cells. Because of time consuming and challenge of handling in using of traditional methods such as flow Tofacitinib manufacturer cytometry, noninvasive methods are incoming popular methods. It is shown carbon nanotubes can be feasible as imaging contrast agents for magnetic resonance, optical, and radiotracer modalities. Another important application of carbon nanotubes in tissue engineering Glutamate dehydrogenase is its potential for measure of biodistribution and can also be modified with radiotracers for gamma scintigraphy. Singh et al. bound SWNTs with . In and administered to BALB/c mice to evaluate the biodistribution of nanotubes . The design of better engineered tissues enhances and facilitates with the better monitor of cellular physiology such as enzyme/cofactor interactions, protein and metabolite secretion, cellular behavior, and ion transport. Nanosensors possibly will be utilized to make available constant monitoring of the performance of the engineered tissues.