1T2,obs=[Lb][LT](1T2,b)+[Lf][LT](1T2,0)The observed effect is a m

1T2,obs=[Lb][LT](1T2,b)+[Lf][LT](1T2,0)The observed effect is a mole average effect of bound ligand [Lb] and free ligand [Lf] where the sum of the concentrations of Lb and Lf give the concentration of total ligand, [LT]. From a determination of the

amount of ligand bound (the concentration of enzyme sites if the enzyme is saturated with ligand) and the total amount of ligand present, 1/T2,b can be calculated. Values for 1/T1 can be handled by similar treatment if 1/T1obs is measured. If the dipolar effect is only intramolecular and if the nature of the dipoles is known (e.g. 1H–1H interactions), the value for the rotational correlation time for that group in the enzyme–ligand complex can be calculated. From a determination Selleck RAD001 of ligand binding, values for [Lb] and [Lf] can be obtained and 1/T1,b and 1/T2,b calculated. From the structure of the molecule, the distance r between the dipoles is usually obtained. The distance r is estimated from crystal structure data or from models of such compounds ( Mildvan et al., 1967). If immobilization is detected and calculated for the ligand bound to the native enzyme, then one can determine if immobilization of the same ligand occurs with modified enzyme. Restriction of molecular

motion is one possible mechanism of catalytic activation. Another approach to the study of ligand binding to enzymes is to use paramagnetic probes on the enzyme. The use of paramagnetic species to probe ligand interactions is feasible because an unpaired electron is about 657 times more effective than a proton in causing a dipolar effect on relaxation. GDC-0449 supplier Several approaches can be utilized to

take advantage of these large dipolar effects. Stable nitroxides, many of which are commercially available, can potentially be covalently attached to the enzyme. These include derivatives of iodoacetate, N-ethylmaleimide, and diisopropylfluorophospate that can be Dapagliflozin used to label reactive groups such as cysteine, histidine, lysine, or reactive serine (Berliner, 1976). Selectivity of labeling and choice of amino acid residue is necessary. The label can be used as the reference point to study ligand interactions to labeled enzyme. Alternative paramagnetic species that can be used are metal ions. These metals may either bind to the enzyme or can bind as a metal–substrate complex to the enzyme. Some of the metal ions that can be used or substituted for the “physiological” cation are Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Gd(III) or Cr(III). If the enzyme being studied gives the investigator a choice of cations there are distinct advantages to using a few of these cations, particularly Mn(II), as will be shown. Determination of the stoichiometry of the paramagnetic center is necessary. With the nitroxide “spin label” an integration of the EPR spectrum of labeled enzyme to obtain a spin count can be used. A comparison of the spectrum of the sample with a spectrum of a known spin label can be made.

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