73 m2 had worse global cognitive function (5 studies, 2,549 participants, SMD −0.63, CI −1.05 to −0.21) (figure 1). Specifically, participants with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 performed more poorly in tests of attention (5 studies, 7,346 participants, SMD −1.04, CI-1.68 to −0.40), memory (4 studies, 3,392 participants, SMD −0.18, CI −0.36 to −0.01) and executive function (5 studies, 2,992 participants, SMD −1.02, CI −1.02 to −0.18). Scores for language skills (3 studies, 2,369 participants, SMD −0.24, CI −0.57 to +0.08) and processing
speed (2 studies, 4,969 participants, SMD −3.09, CI −8.76 to +2.57) were no different. Cognition worsened as GFR declined, with global cognitive function (p = 0.003) and executive function (p = 0.05) test scores poorer
when GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 versus GFR 30–60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions: CKD affects global cognitive function and worsens with advancing CKD, with attention and executive function BMS-354825 research buy being particularly affected. A more detailed understanding of the cognitive effects of CKD is needed as it has implications for patient education, chronic disease management and transplant work-up. YAMAMOTO RYOHEI1, see more SHINZAWA MAKI1, ISHIGAMI TOSHIHIRO1, TERANISHI JUNYA1, KAWADA NORITAKA2, NISHIDA MAKOTO2, YAMAUCHI-TAKIHARA KEIKO2, RAKUGI HIROMI1, ISAKA YOSHITAKA1, MORIYAMA TOSHIKI2 1Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka Univeristy; 2Osaka University Health Care Center Introduction: Some studies reported that soft drink consumption predicts cardiovascular disease and its risk factors
such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. On the contrary, only a little information is available about an association between soft drink consumption and incidence of chronic kidney disease. Methods: Eligible participants of this retrospective cohort study were 12026 Osaka University employees aged ≤65 yr who visited Osaka Rebamipide University Healthcare Center for their annual health examinations between April 2006 and March 2011. A total of 7976 participants (66.3%) were included who had ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 of eGFR, negative or trace of dipstick urinary protein, or no current treatment for kidney diseases at their first examination. Baseline soft drink consumption at the first examination (0, 1, and ≥2 drinks/day) was obtained from the self-reported standard questionnaires. The outcome of interest is proteinuria defined as ≥1+ of dipstick urinary protein. An association between soft drink consumption and incidence of proteinuria was assessed using Log-rank test for trend and multivariate Poisson regression models adjusting for clinically relevant factors. Results: The baseline characteristics of 3579 (44.9%), 3055 (38.3%) and 1342 (16.8%) employees with 0, 1, and ≥2 drinks/day of soft drink consumption were as follows; age (yr), median 30 [interquartile range 29–42], 32 [27–39], and 34 [29–42] (Ptrend < 0.001); male gender 46.0%, 49.4%, and 62.9% (Ptrend < 0.001); body mass index (kg/m2), mean 21.