Recent studies have shown that separate, exogenous activation of

Recent studies have shown that separate, exogenous activation of inflammasome pathways is not always stringently required for IL-1β cleavage, especially in monocytes or in situations in which strong cellular activation leads to ATP release and autoinduction of the inflammasome 45–47. Western blotting showed that monocytes treated with ATP alone did not produce detectable cleaved IL-1β, but triacyl-CSK4 with or without added ATP produced detectable

cleaved IL-1β (Fig. 4D). CD1 induction correlated with IL-1β cleavage, as flow cytometric measurement of surface CD1a induction showed that triacyl-CSK4, but not ATP was sufficient to induce CD1 (Fig. 4D). Thus, AP24534 TLR-2 activation is necessary and sufficient, and so it can be considered

the main driver of CD1 induction under these conditions. AZD5363 supplier Separate, pharmacologic activation by ATP contributes quantitatively to the response. A now widely used nomenclature system was originally developed in which the five human CD1 APCs were divided into two groups based on amino acid sequence homology 48. New data, including the responses to B. burdorferi reported here, show that group 1 protein (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) protein expression responses are dichotomously different. B. burgdorferi infection strongly and selectively upregulated CD1a, CD1b and CD1c gene products with no discernable effects on constitutively expressed CD1d. The constitutive expression of CD1d Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase at all stages is consistent with its proposed function in activating NKT cells during the earliest stages of innate immunity. In contrast, the group 1 CD1 isoforms are not commonly expressed on circulating monocytes or at high levels or on uninflammed dermal skin and so require some antecedent stimulus of the innate immune system before APCs become competent to activate T cells. We found evidence for group 1 CD1 upregulation as an early event in Lyme disease pathogenesis and developed a new clinical model to study of human CD1 proteins in situ. Results obtained on dermal DCs in vivo, ex vivo

(Fig. 1) or with dispersed myeloid cells in vitro generally agree with one another and show marked upregulation of group 1 CD1 proteins. However, some differences were seen based on the route of the infection, the types of cells or the particular CD1 isoform analyzed. Bright staining for group 1 CD1 proteins was seen at the margin of certain EM lesions, providing clear evidence that CD1 can be expressed at the site of the spread of spirochetes early in the disease. Many patient samples did not show CD1 expression present above baseline levels (Table 1, Fig. 1A), but CD1b and CD1c upregulation was seen in all cases when the infection was carried out under controlled experimental conditions that avoid sampling bias. In no case did we see strong expression of group 1 CD1 in the dermis of uninfected skin (Fig.

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