8/100 PY (95% CI 665, 934/100 PY) For responders, the crude ho

8/100 PY (95% CI 66.5, 93.4/100 PY). For responders, the crude hospitalization rate declined statistically significantly during the 46 to 90-day time period, with a relative rate (RR) vs. the first 45 days of 0.71 (95% CI 0.51, 0.98). From 90 days to the end of the year, the hospitalization rate for responders stabilized at near 45/100 PY (RR for days 91–180 vs. the first 45 days, 0.56; 95% CI 0.40, 0.78). For nonresponders, there was no statistically significant change in all-cause

hospitalization rates across time periods, with the point estimates ranging from 78.7 to 99.7/100 PY (Fig. 1). Fewer than half of all subjects (34% of responders and 46% of nonresponders; P<0.001) were ever hospitalized over the entire period beginning 180 days before HAART initiation to 365 days afterwards. In multivariate analysis (Table 2), responders' hospitalization rates retained an identical PI3K cancer pattern of statistically significant decrease in later time periods vs. earlier periods (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.42, 0.82 for responders in days 91–180 vs. days 1–45). Having an increase in CD4 count of at least 101 cells/μL (the median increase in CD4 count in virological responders) had a borderline association with a decreased risk of hospitalization (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.67, 1.03). Additional factors significantly associated with hospitalization included being a nonresponder in the 91–180 day

(RR vs. responders 2.14; 95% CI 1.41, 3.25) and 181–365 day (RR vs. responders 1.43; 95% CI 1.00, 2.04) time periods; female gender; African American race; IDU; and lower CD4 cell count at HAART initiation. 5-Fluoracil manufacturer Hospitalization rates for the seven diagnostic categories with the highest

rates are shown in Fig. 2. Non-ADI infections (the three most frequent individual diagnoses being pneumonia, unspecified organism; lower limb cellulitis; and acute/subacute Adenosine bacterial endocarditis) and ADIs (pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis and candidal esophagitis) were consistently the most common reasons for admission across all time periods for both responders and nonresponders. Psychiatric illness [major depression, recurrent episode; depressive disorder, not elsewhere classified (NEC); and drug-induced mood disorder] was the third most common category and was followed by gastrointestinal and hepatic disease (acute pancreatitis; chronic pancreatitis; and cirrhosis of the liver, NEC); cardiovascular disease (hypertensive end-stage chronic kidney disease; venous thrombosis, NEC; and cerebral artery occlusion with infarct); endocrine, nutritional, metabolic or immune disease (hypovolaemia, cachexia, and hypercalcaemia); and renal disease (acute renal failure, NEC; chronic renal failure; and lower nephron nephrosis). For responders, hospitalizations as a result of ADI and non-ADI infections revealed statistically significant decreases by the period starting 90 days after HAART initiation (Fig. 2a). In the 1–45 day period, IRIS hospitalizations (rate 10.9/100 PY; 95% CI 5.6, 21.

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