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“Background The best-studied asymmetrically dividing prokaryote is the alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. At each cell CYC202 cost division, predivisional cells of C. crescentus localize different structures at the cell poles: a single flagellum selleck inhibitor occupies the pole that will be inherited Selleck Pomalidomide by the swarmer cell and pili are synthesized at this pole after division, whereas a narrow extension of the cell envelope (the stalk) tipped by an adhesive structure (the holdfast) occupies the opposite pole that
will give rise to the stalked cell. The stalked cell is able to restart the cell cycle immediately after division, whereas the swarmer cell is unable to initiate DNA replication until it differentiates into a stalked cell. The C. crescentus cell cycle and developmental program are controlled by three master regulators: CtrA, GcrA, and DnaA (for review, see ). These proteins are regulated such that each one reaches maximal abundance during a different stage of the cell cycle. DnaA reaches peak abundance at initiation of DNA replication occurring in stalked cells, GcrA peaks after DNA replication in early predivisional cells, and CtrA peaks in late predivisional and swarmer stages . All three proteins are required for regulating transcription of different suites of genes. DnaA activates genes involved in chromosome partitioning, nucleotide biosynthesis, and DNA replication, recombination and repair , and initiates replication of the chromosome. DnaA is also required for transcription of gcrA.