coli. Disruption of disulfide bond formation affects this system largely via an additional small protein component, MgrB, and its conserved cysteine residues. Currently, we cannot exclude the possibility that the interaction between CacA and TrxA is an artifact CacA protein overexpression because TrxA interacts with many proteins, including the RR RcsB . Because we were unable to detect the 63-amino
acid CacA protein at native levels, we employed a larger tag or carrier protein in several biochemical experiments, including the pull-down assay. Protein instability likely precludes thorough analysis of small Torin 1 proteins of less than 50 amino acids or so . Notably, deletion of trxA did not impact cpxP transcription levels in normal growth conditions (e.g., LB medium). More strict conditions LOXO-101 need to be tested, as some MLN2238 purchase small proteins accumulated within bacterial cells upon exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) . The specificity that TCS connectors exhibit for their targets is likely a key contributing factor in the fidelity of the integration of TCS signals at a post-translational level. In fact, the PmrD connector protein can inhibit the dephosphorylation of phospho-PmrA
but not of its closest homolog, the response regulator YgiX . Although recognizing
novel connectors in genomic sequences based on their uniqueness is far from trivial, genetic approaches will continue to help elucidate links amongst TCSs. Conclusions others In this study, we identified the CacA protein as an activator of the CpxR/CpxA system. This factor may be another example of an emerging class of small proteins  that function as nodes in the TCS network and function to integrate their signaling pathways in Salmonella. Methods Bacterial strains, plasmids, primers, and growth conditions Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 1. Primers used in this study are listed in Table 2. All S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are derived from wild-type 14028s and were constructed by phage P22-mediated transduction as previously described . Bacteria were grown at 37°C in N-minimal media  buffered with 50 mM Bis-Tris, pH 7.7, and supplemented with 0.1% casamino acids, 38 mM glycerol and 10 μM or 10 mM MgCl2. E. coli DH5 α was used for preparing plasmid DNA. Ampicillin and kanamycin were used at 50 μg/ml, chloramphenicol at 20 μg/ml and tetracycline at 10 μg/ml. Table 1 Bacterial Strains and Plasmids Used in This Study Strain or plasmid Description Reference or source S.