Conclusion We demonstrated that, SPEF with high repetition freque

Conclusion We demonstrated that, SPEF with high repetition frequency could also achieve similar levels of in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficiency which could be used to reduce unpleasant sensations that occurred in tumor electrical treatment. In addition, rich components of nanosecond pulse contained in SPEF with high frequency electromagnetic fields (5 kHz) could induce cell apoptosis and provided complementary antitumor effect for

the marginal regions with weak electric fields. Our research proposed potential applications and feasibility of using high frequency SPEF in clinical cancer treatment. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this study examined only in vitro and in vivo antitumor effect of SPEF with various frequencies. However, effects of pulse repetition frequencies on biomechanical properties of skeletal MS-275 concentration muscle and on pain perception threshold remained to be Evofosfamide chemical structure further clarified. In future study, in order to integrate current antitumor investigation with biomechanical experiment and extend its perspective clinical applications, we should take this limitation into consideration and try to perform in vivo biomechanical test and pain threshold measurement in response to SPEF with different frequencies. Acknowledgements This study was supported by Zhejiang

Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (to Xiao-Jun Yang) (General Program, Project No. Y206482). Moreover, it was also sponsored in part by two grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Key Program to Cai-Xin Casein kinase 1 Sun, Project No.50637020 and General Program to Bindarit manufacturer Li-Na Hu, Project No.30371619). References 1. Weaver JC: Electroporation of biological membranes from multicellular to nano scales. ITDEI 2003, 10: 754–768. 2. Weaver JC: Electroporation: a general phenomenon for manipulating cells and tissues. J Cell Biochem 1993, 51: 426–435.PubMed 3. Gothelf A, Mir LM, Gehl J: Electrochemotherapy: results of cancer treatment using enhanced delivery of bleomycin by electroporation. Cancer Treat Rev 2003,

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