Controls were persons with recent infection with Salmonella strai

Controls were persons with recent infection with Salmonella strains other than the outbreak strain and matched to cases by age and geography. Environmental

samples were obtained from patients’ homes; traceback investigations were conducted.\n\nRESULTS: We identified 376 cases from 44 states from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011; 29% (56/193) of patients were hospitalized and none died. Median patient age was 5 years (range,1-86 years); 69% were children,10 years old (253/367). Among 114 patients interviewed, 69 (61%) reported frog exposure. Of patients who knew frog type, 79% (44/56) reported African dwarf frogs (ADF), a type of aquatic frog. Among 18 cases and 29 controls, illness was significantly associated with frog exposure (67% cases versus 3% controls, matched odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 1.9-infinity). Environmental

samples from aquariums containing ADFs in 8 patients’ homes, 2 ADF distributors, and a day care center yielded isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. Traceback investigations of ADFs CYT387 from patient purchases converged to a common ADF breeding facility. Environmental samples from the breeding facility yielded the outbreak strain.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: ADFs were the source of this nationwide pediatric predominant outbreak. Pediatricians should routinely inquire about pet ownership and advise families about illness risks associated with animals.”
“Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene association studies this website and results of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension are disproving the longstanding concept that mild to moderate essential hypertension contributes substantially to end-stage renal disease susceptibility in African Americans. APOL1 coding variants underlie a spectrum of kidney diseases, including that attributed to hypertension

(labeled arteriolar or hypertensive nephrosclerosis), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and HIV-associated nephropathy. APOL1 nephropathy risk variants persist because of protection afforded from the parasite that causes African sleeping sickness. This breakthrough will lead to novel treatments for hypertensive African Americans with low-level proteinuria, for whom effective therapies are lacking. Furthermore, APOL1 nephropathy risk variants contribute to racially variable allograft survival rates after kidney transplantation and assist in detecting nondiabetic forms of nephropathy in African Americans with diabetes. Discovery of APOL1-associated nephropathy was a major success of the genetics revolution, demonstrating that secondary hypertension is typically present in nondiabetic African Americans with nephropathy.

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