Evidence relating to each of those facets of a plant-based medici

Evidence relating to each of those facets of a plant-based medicine is being hampered, in part, by fourteen myths. While these myths are both powerful and persistent, they must be debunked for significant progress to be made in enhancing integrated global health care. This

paper, an update on an earlier report, will examine these myths, and the roles that phytochemistry should play in this process. Some examples of the use of the new strategies will be presented from the contemporary literature, together with a brief summary of a clinical trial of a traditional medicine treatment for obesity, and a summary of activities in the European Union to address issues related to the approval Selleck AZD7762 and marketing of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. (C) 2014 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Nanopharmaceuticals have the potential to revolutionise medical treatment by permitting the design of more potent, less toxic “smart” therapeutics, ultimately leading to personalised medicine. This review summarises the challenges and potential uses of nanodelivery system for the topical drug therapy of vaginal diseases. The vaginal route of drug administration

remains a challenge in the development of novel drug therapies, including nanomedicines. We attempted to provide an unbiased overview of currently investigated nanodelivery systems, some of which remain to be extensively studied under laboratory conditions, and some Selleckchem Stattic of which are already in clinical trials. Most nanodelivery systems are aimed at improving the treatment of vaginal infections, including HIV prevention. Promising new approaches in nanopharmaceutical design are discussed in this review, as well as the controversies related to mucoadhesiveness of nanopharmaceuticals. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Cardiac electrical activity depends on the coordinated propagation of excitatory stimuli through the heart and, as a consequence, the generation of action potentials in individual cardiomyocytes. Action potential formation results from the opening and closing (gating) of ion channels that

are expressed within the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes. Ion channels possess distinct genetic, Prexasertib cost molecular, pharmacologic, and gating properties and exhibit dissimilar expression levels within different cardiac regions. By gating, ion channels permit ion currents across the sarcolemma, thereby creating the different phases of the action potential ( e. g., resting phase, depolarization, repolarization). The importance of ion channels in maintaining normal heart rhythm is reflected by the increased incidence of arrhythmias in inherited diseases that are linked to mutations in genes encoding ion channels or their accessory proteins and in acquired diseases that are associated with changes in ion channel expression levels or gating properties.

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