In contrast to transplantation of other organs for recovery of or

In contrast to transplantation of other organs for recovery of organ function,

the ultimate objective of UTx is pregnancy and delivery of healthy children. Thus, in this study, the preliminary goal was recovery of uterine function. The surgical procedure for UTx, immunosuppression, diagnosis of rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, changes in the immune mechanism during pregnancy and evaluation of uterine blood flow all require further optimization. Further accumulation of data from animal models, including pregnancy and delivery, is needed to establish clinical application of UTx in humans, although UTx in humans has become a clinical reality. Therefore, the preliminary experience in non-human primates reported here is an important step towards further UTx basic research and clinical application of UTx in humans. We are grateful to Dr Timothy Shim, Dr Kazuki Kikuchi and Dr Kensuke Tashiro (Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo) for help with surgery;

to Hirohito Kato, Nobuyoshi Apoptosis inhibitor Yamashita, Yoshiro Nishida, Kotaro Hanaki, Ryuichi Katagiri, Tomoko Shimonosono and Syuzo Koyama (Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories) for experimental support; to Noriko Kagawa (the chief of Repro Self Bank, Japan) for her advice with hormonal examination; to Tomoharu Mine and Yuhei Shigeta (IMI) for technical assistance and to Hiroshi Suzuki (Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University) for technical assistance with the immunohistochemical analysis. This study was supported by the Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology, HSP90 Japan (MEXT), a Keio University Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Medical Scientists, Kanzawa Medical Research Foundation, Akaeda Medical Research

Foundation, Inamori Research Foundation and the Program for the Next Generation of World-leading Research of the Japanese Cabinet Office (LS039). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. “
“Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory condition associated with variable degrees of pelvic pain and infertility. Studies have showed that the growth and progression of endometriosis continue even in ovariectomized animals. This indicates that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic environment. As a component of innate immune system, increased infiltration of macrophages has been described in the intact tissue and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. Different immune cells and dendritic cells express Toll-like receptors (TLR) and exhibit functional activity in response to microbial products.

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