In the present work, the testis of lead treated rats showed marked degeneration of most seminiferous tubules with absence of spermatogenic series in tubular lumen and congestion in testis blood vessels. Interestingly, the testis of lead treated rat given cinnamon extract showed normal histological structure of most seminiferous
tubules. Similar NVP-BKM120 datasheet changes accompanied by the accumulation of immature cells within the tubular lumen were also observed in rats under the influence of lead acetate . More conspicuous degenerative changes in testicular tissues and an increase in sperm head abnormalities were observed in mice exposed to lead acetate . In the present study there was a marked reduction in the expression of androgen receptor in the testis of lead treated rats. In a similar study, Paul et al.  found less intense immunostaining for androgen receptor in interstitial and peritubular cells of testis in ewes grazed on sewage treated pastures. To date, little information exists on
the effect of lead acetate on caspase-3 expression as well as the effect of cinnamon in correction of the lead toxicity. In the present study, lead induced significant increase in caspase-3 expression indicating that lead provokes apoptosis in the rat testis. Interestingly, the addition of cinnamon improved the condition by lowering the caspase-3 expressions. Apoptosis is a physiological process of selected cell deletion. As an antagonist of cell proliferation, apoptosis contributes to keeping the cell number in testicular tissue and helps to remove mTOR inhibitor superfluous and
damaged cells, but excessive apoptosis could cause destruction of male reproductive why function . The levels of caspase-3 were distinctly increased in mice treated with lead acetate Wang et al. . In a similar study in China to explore the effects of expressions of caspase-3 in mice testes at different concentrations and time of lead acetate, it increased the expressions of caspase-3, which induces apoptosis of germ cells . The occurrence of testicular cell apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 in the adult male mice following lead administration were investigated. Compared with the control group, the protein levels of caspase-3 was significantly higher in experimental groups. The degree of differences was correlated with the time of lead exposure. The testicular apoptotic cell death is highly associated with lead loading and changes in caspase-3 expression may play an important role in this process . It can be concluded that cinnamon may improve the reproductive parameters in male rats after lead acetate exposure. This is might be due to improve the superoxide dismutase level, androgen receptor expression and decrease caspase-3 expression in testis of male rats. However, further research is required to throw some more lights on the subject. All authors state that there is no conflict of interest with the work done in this study.