Interleukin-15 (IL-15) produced by hyperplasic stroma and epithel

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) produced by hyperplasic stroma and epithelial cells [22] selleck could attract T cells and support their expression of P. Augmented IL-15 production by prostate cells could

be a contributory factor facilitating the transendothelial migration of CD56+ NK cells to the stroma of BPH tissue and support their P expression [16]. In our study, flow cytometry analysis revealed negligible expression of P in T lymphocytes and NKT and NK cells in the PCa tissue; this may be attributable to tumour activity leading to the development of a chemical barrier around the tumour that probably inhibits TIL infiltration and activation [23, 24]. The increased production of reactive nitrogen species by the tumour actively models the tumour environment, leading to an altered chemokine profile and changes in capacity to recruit T lymphocytes [25]. In contrast to proinflammatory dominance in patients with BPH, increased levels of IL-4 have been observed in patients with androgen-independent PCa [26]. Furthermore,

IL-4 was shown to enhance the expression of the PSA gene, whose protein product is a prostate-specific glycoprotein overexpressed in patients with PCa [27]. PSA, because of its glycoprotein structure, could GSI-IX mw support the local anti-inflammatory response and induce alternative activation of antigen-presenting cells, leading to inefficient activation of cell-mediated immunity [28]. In such cases, tumour cells could deeply invade surrounding tissues and enter systemic circulation. Negligible CD3+ T cell infiltration as well as reduced NK cell infiltrate with low P content was found in Dapagliflozin PCa tissue and this could be responsible for the inefficient control of tumour invasion. Moreover, a negative correlation between PSA values and overall

percentage of P+ cells and P-expressing T and NK cells in the prostate tissue was observed only in PCa patients, suggesting that the low percentage of P+ cells in the prostate tissue could be responsible for an increased risk of tumour development and progression. In conclusion, our findings showed that the low frequency of P+ lymphocytes, including T, NKT and NK cells, in prostate tissue of patients with BPH and, particularly, PCa could be the consequence of local tissue microenvironment and one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of prostate hyperplasia following malignant alteration. This investigation was supported by the grants from the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (projects no. 062-0620096-0094 and 062-0000000-0220). The authors thank Ksenija Tulic for assistance in laboratory work. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. “
“Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an inflammatory cytokine whose role in autoimmune diseases has not been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been shown to play critical roles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models.

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