Moreover, a temperature-sensitive mutation in U(L)15 precluded coimmunoprecipitation of pU(L)15 with the U(L)28 and U(L)33 proteins at the nonpermissive temperature. We conclude that interactions between putative terminase components are tightly linked to successful viral DNA cleavage and packaging.”
“People can solve problems in more than one way. Two general strategies involve (A) methodical, conscious, search of problem-state transformations, and (B) sudden insight, with abrupt emergence of the solution into consciousness. This study elucidated the influence of initial resting brain-state on subjects’ subsequent strategy choices. High-density electroencephalograms
(EEGs) were recorded from subjects at rest who were subsequently directed to solve a series of anagrams. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the proportion of anagram solutions derived with self-reported insight versus search. Reaction time this website and accuracy results were consistent with different cognitive problem-solving strategies used for OTX015 mouse solving anagrams with versus without insight. Spectral analyses yielded group differences in resting-state EEG supporting hypotheses concerning insight-related attentional diffusion and right-lateralized hemispheric asymmetry. These results reveal a relationship between resting-state brain activity and problem-solving strategy, and, more generally, a dependence of event-related
neural computations on the preceding resting state. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a major role in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection. To evade immune pressure, HIV-1 is selected at targeted CTL epitopes, which may consequentially alter viral replication fitness. In our longitudinal investigations
of the interplay between T-cell immunity and viral evolution following acute HIV-1 infection, we observed in a treatment-naive patient the emergence of highly avid, gamma interferon-secreting, CD8(+) CTL recognizing second an HLA-Cw*0102-restricted epitope, NSPTRREL (NL8). This epitope lies in the p6(Pol) protein, located in the transframe region of the Gag-Pol polyprotein. Over the course of infection, an unusual viral escape mutation arose within the p6(Pol) epitope through insertion of a 3-amino-acid repeat, NSPT(SPT)RREL, with a concomitant insertion in the p6(Gag) late domain, PTAPP(APP). Interestingly, this p6(Pol) insertion mutation is often selected in viruses with the emergence of antiretroviral drug resistance, while the p6(Gag) late-domain PTAPP motif binds Tsg101 to permit viral budding. These results are the first to demonstrate viral evasion of immune pressure by amino acid insertions. Moreover, this escape mutation represents a novel mechanism whereby HIV-1 can alter its sequence within both the Gag and Pol proteins with potential functional consequences for viral replication and budding.