N = 12-18. (C) Fluorometric analysis of a 4 kDa FITC-dextran probe in serum samples
obtained from WT and MMP-9−/− mice in the presence or absence of C. mTOR inhibitor rodentium infection (10d and this website 30d PI). *P<0.05 compared to Sham WT; # P<0.05 compared to Sham MMP-9−/−. N = 7-17. To investigate the presence of deficits in epithelial barrier function, WT and MMP-9−/− mice were orogastrically gavaged with FITC-labeled dextran probe (4 kDa). Although dextran flux does not localize the source of macro-molecular uptake along the length of the gastrointestinal tract, the probe is routinely used as an indicator of gut permeability in animal models . Plasma concentrations of the probe were then determined by fluorimetry and used as an indication of intestinal permeability, as described previously . Significant increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction were detected, compared to sham-infected mice, when WT (10d PI) and MMP-9−/− (10d PI) mice were infected with C. rodentium RO4929097 (Figure 2C) (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences noted between WT and MMP−/− infected groups at 10d PI. At 30d PI, intestinal permeability had returned to baseline levels in both WT and MMP-9−/− mice. Immunocytochemistry of sham and C. rodentium-infected (10d) colon from WT mice revealed localized expression of MMP-9 (green)
primarily at the apical surface of intestinal epithelium, with more intense staining in infected mice (Figure 3). No non-specific binding of anti-MMP-9 antibody was observed in isotype
controls. Figure 3 MMP-9 expression Niclosamide is increased with C. rodentium infection. Immunohistochemistry shows that MMP-9 distributed throughout the crypts (green) in uninfected WT mice is localized primarily to the apical surface of intestinal epithelium in C. rodentium-infected (10d) WT mice. Scale bar, 100 μm. C. rodentium infection modulates goblet cells in colonocytes Periodic Acid Shiff (PAS) staining was used to assess the qualitative (Figure 4A) and quantitative (Figure 4B) changes to goblet cells that occurred during C. rodentium infection. There were no differences in the number of positively stained red cells in colonic crypts from MMP-9+/+ cells and MMP-9−/− mice at 10d PI. Quantitative analysis of the number of positive PAS stained cells per crypt showed a significant increase in MMP-9−/− mice at 30d PI, compared to wild type infected mice (P < 0.05). Figure 4 Post-infectious goblet cell hyperplasia occurs in MMP-9−/− mice. (A) Representative histology demonstrating goblet cells stained positive (red) for PAS in MMP-9+/+ and MMP-9−/− colonocytes. (B) Quantitative analysis shows similar numbers of goblet cells in WT and MMP-9−/− mice at 10d PI. A significant increase in goblet cells was observed in MMP-9−/− mice at 30d PI. *P<0.05 compared to WT-infected animals. N = 3–5.