“Objective: Aortic aneurysm size is a critical determinant

“Objective: Aortic aneurysm size is a critical determinant of the need for intervention, yet the maximal diameter will often Selleckchem BI-D1870 vary depending on the modality and method of measurement. We aimed to define the relationship between commonly used computed tomography (CT) measurement techniques and those based on current reporting standards and to compare the values obtained with diameter measured using ultrasound (US).

Methods. CT scans from patients with US-detected aneurysms were analyzed using three-dimensional reconstruction software. Maximal aortic diameter

was recorded in the anteroposterior (CT-AP) plane, along the maximal ellipse (CT-ME), perpendicular to the maximal ellipse (CT-PME), or perpendicular to the centerline of flow (CT-PCLF). Diameter measurements were compared with each other and with maximal AP diameter according to US (US-AP). Analysis was performed according to the principles of Bland and Altman.

Results are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. Results. CT and US scans from 109 patients (92 men,

17 women), with a mean age of 72 +/- 8 years, were included. The mean of each series of readings on CT was significantly larger than the mean US-AP measurement (P < .001), and they also differed significantly from each other (P < .001). The CT-PCLF diameter was larger than CT-AP find more and CT-PME by mean values of 3.0 +/- 6.6 and 5.9 +/- 6.0 mm, respectively. The CT-ME diameter was larger than CT-PCLF by a mean of 2.4 +/- 5 mm. The US-AP diameter was smaller than CT-AP diameter by 4.2 +/- 4.9 mm, CT-ME by 9.6 +/- 8.0 mm, CT-PME by 1.3 +/- 5 mm, and smaller than CT-PCLF by 7.3 +/- 7.0 mm. Aneurysm size did not significantly affect these differences. Seventy-eight 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl percent of 120 pairs of intraobserver CT measurements and 65% of interobserver CT measurements differed

by <2 mm.

Conclusions: CT-based measurements of aneurysm size tend to be larger than the US-A-P measurement. CT-PCLF diameters are consistently larger than CT-PME as well as CT-AP measurements. These differences should be considered when applying evidence from previous trials to clinical decisions. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:263-8.)”
“Following CNS injury there is a period of vulnerability when cells will not easily tolerate a secondary insult. However recent studies have shown that following traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as hypoxic-ischemic injuries, the CNS may experience a period of protection termed “”preconditioning.”" While there is literature characterizing the properties of vulnerability and preconditioning in the adult rodent, there is an absence of comparable literature in the developing rat. To determine if there is a window of vulnerability in the developing rat, post-natal day 19 animals were subjected to a severe lateral fluid percussion injury followed by pilocarpine (Pc)-induced status epilepticus at 1, 6 or 24 In post TBI.

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